Malay. J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2022) 25 (2)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page 1- 11
Afiqah Insyirah Lutfi, Nantacha Kritsanayanyong, Siti Nur Diyanah Rahim, Noor Baity Saidi, Mohd. Puad Abdullah and Nadiya Akmal Baharum
FUNCTIONAL PREDICTION OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED 10 IN Musa acuminata DH PAHANG (MaPR-10) FOR TARGETED BANANA ADAPTATION AGAINST STRESSES
Pathogenesis-related 10 (PR-10) is a defense-related protein that provides adaptive responses to various biotic and abiotic stimuli. It was characterized by diverse roles due to its multigene property. Hence, the specific biological roles of PR-10 are still inconclusive. To date, there is no reported in-silico characterization of PR-10 in wild bananas yet. Thus, this study predicts the valuable Musa acuminata DH Pahang (wild banana) MaPR-10 copies which might be useful for the targeted functions. A total of ten putative MaPR-10 members were discovered which can be clustered into three major subgroups (intracellular PR-10 (IPR), S-norcoclaurine synthase (NCS) and major latex protein (MLP) through phylogenetic analysis. MEME suite analysis displayed distinguished motif arrangement among all three subgroups. Gene ontology (GO) revealed that all MaPR-10s exhibit similar functions such as plant defence, phosphoprotein phosphatase activity and activation of ABA signaling pathway except for Ma09_p15840.1 (an IPR) and Ma04_p33910.1 (NCS) which displayed distinct roles both in biological and molecular functional prediction. Furthermore, analysis of the promoter regions using PLACE presented a diverse regulation of MaPR-10s upon various biotic and abiotic stimuli. Altogether, this study contributes to a better perspective of MaPR-10s features and their functional predictions, which will be essential for future crop improvements against biotic and abiotic stresses, particularly in bananas.
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Nik Yusnoraini Yusof, Muggunna Balasubramaniam, Anis Fathima Abdul Kareem and Amira Suriaty binti Yaakop
COMPARATIVE GENOMICS OF Xanthomonas BACTERIA: INSIGHTS INTO ITS PLANT PATHOGENICITY
Xanthomonas is a group of Gram-negative bacteria from class Gammaproteobacteria that causes multiple diseases in many plant hosts. Bacterial secretion systems of Xanthomonas contribute to its pathogenicity and are one of the most important factors for symptom and disease development. Comparative genomic analysis between 20 Xanthomonas bacteria, well known for their pathogenicity was chosen to study the bacterial secretion system, specifically, the type III bacterial secretion system associated with bacterial pathogenesis. The analysis was performed using databases and software including NCBI, RAST, antiSMASH, KEGG and Islandviewer4 to compare the biological and taxonomical relationship between these genomes. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) similarity index ranges between 79% to 99.96%, indicating that the selected genomes were closely related. Screening of secondary metabolites using antiSMASH showed all 20 genomes produced secondary metabolites. Siderophore secondary metabolite gene cluster necessary for optimum virulence was present in all the genomes. Genomic island discovery using Islandviewer4 revealed the presence of mobile genetic elements such as phages and transposons, indicating horizontal gene transfer events. Genes and pathogenicity pathway mechanism identification of type III bacterial secretion system was done using SEED subsystem and KEGG database. A total of 34 genes associated with type III bacterial secretion system were identified. HrpA, HrpB, HrpX and HrpG were the conserved genes across the Xanthomonas species. The HrpX and HrpG genes are essential for symptom development, disease establishment and invasion into host cells.
Anh Cam Ha, Tan Minh Le, Chinh Duc Nguyen Pham
FLAVONOIDS-ENRICHED EXTRACTION OF Phyllanthus amarus LEAVES AS A POTENTIAL IN VITRO MEDICATION FOR TREATING DIABETES
This study aimed to evaluate the extraction process of Phyllanthus amarus for the enrichment of flavonoid content applied in treating diabetes and its complications. The investigated factors included ethanol concentration (0, 30, 70, 100%), extraction temperatures (40, 50, 60, 70 °C), extraction time (30, 60, 120 min), and solid-to-solvent ratio (1:10, 1:15, and 1:20 g:mL). The results showed that the appropriate extraction conditions for high flavonoid content were at an ethanol concentration of 70%, extracting temperature of 50 oC, extraction time of 60 min, and solid-to-solvent ratio of 1:15 g:mL. The relevance of flavonoid and α-glucosidase inhibition activity was also confirmed in this study. This enriched-flavonoid extract exhibited good 𝛼𝛼-glucosidase inhibition activity with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 2 μg/mL, antioxidant activity with IC50 of 4.5 μg/mL, and anti-inflammatory activity with IC20 of 400 μg/mL. Besides, the extracts also displayed activities in antimicrobial, especially Gram-positive strains.
Boon Hong Kong, Rumiyati Rumiyati, Muhammad Fazril Mohamad Razif, Shin Yee Fung
EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS FOUND IN Volvariella volvacea FROM RURAL SEDAYU, YOGYAKARTA, INDONESIA
The Volvariella volvacea or commonly known as the straw mushroom is one of the nutrient-rich mushrooms. V. volvacea mushroom collected from Sedayu, Yogyakarta, Indonesia was analyzed for its protein, carbohydrate, and glycoprotein contents. The proteins isolated from the cold water extract of V. volvacea were identified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results showed that the cold water extract of V. volvacea contained moderate amounts of proteins and carbohydrates, and was rich in glycoproteins. A pore-forming cardiotoxic protein, Volvatoxin A2, was identified in the V. volvacea; however, the involvement of this toxin as the causative agent in poisoning from V. volvacea consumption remains to be elucidated.
Derouiche Samir, Ahmouda Ibtissam, Moussaoui Rokaya
STUDY OF THE TOXIC EFFECT OF DRINKING WATER CONTAMINATED WITH LEAD ON LIVER AND KIDNEY FUNCTIONS IN PREGNANT RATS: THE BENEFIC ROLE OF Aquilaria malaccensis L. SPICE
The objective of this work was to study the effect of using Aquilaria malaccesis spice on some biological parameters in pregnant rats exposed to lead-contaminated drinking water. Twenty (20) female rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 5): control, pregnant rats, pregnant + Pb and pregnant +Pb+ A. malaccensis (Aq). Lead (200 mg/kg b.w.) as Pb (C2H3O2)2 was added to their drinking water for 20 days. A. malaccensis (heartwood powder at a dose of 10 g/kg of diet) was added to the feed during the last 10 days of lead exposure in the animals. The results showed that A. malaccensis was rich in various flavonoid and phenolic compounds. On the other hand, the results showed that pregnancy caused significant physiological and biochemical changes in rats. Our results also showed a significant increase (p <0.05) of liver lead, blood glucose, lipids profile, serum uric acid, urea, transaminases, MCV, Platelet, MDA and GST levels in the pregnant rats Pb2+group compared to the pregnant rats. The results obtained also revealed a significant decrease (p <0.05) in the level of RBC, WBC, Hb, hematocrit, GSH and SOD activity in comparison with pregnant rats group. The treatment with A. malaccensis spice partially improved the biochemical and hematological parameters, which protected the tissues against radical attacks (oxidative stress) caused by lead in pregnant rats. In conclusion, this work shows that A. malaccensis spice has beneficial effects in reducing oxidative stress and toxic effects of lead on the liver and kidneys in rats during gestation.
Hannah Zaihal Hazri, Nurfatini Zakaria, Muhajir Hamid, Mohd Badrin Hanizam Abdul Rahim and Mohd Ezuan Khayat
SCREENING OF DRUG LEAD CANDIDATES FROM Eurycoma longifilia AND
Crocus sativus FOR DPP-4 INHIBITION VIA IN SILICO PHARMACOKINETIC AND MOLECULAR DOCKING ANALYSES
Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) is an enzyme responsible for the inactivation of incretion hormones, and its inhibition augments insulin release from the pancreas. Over the past years, the inhibition of DPP-4 has emerged as an important therapeutic route to treat type 2 diabetes (T2D) since it offers a lower risk of hypoglycemia. Currently, there are several DPP-4 inhibitors available in different molecular structures. The structural diversity of these inhibitors proves the flexibility of the enzyme to bind various shapes of inhibitors. This opens the opportunity for more discovery of novel DPP-4 inhibitors. In this study, 15 phytocompounds from Eurycoma longifilia and Crocus sativus were screened to obtain the candidate leads for DPP-4 inhibitor through in silico pharmacokinetics and molecular docking studies. In order to assess the drug-likeness of the phytocompounds, Lipinski rule of 5 was applied. Thirteen out of 15 phytochemicals were found to pass all the criteria set for this rule. Next, the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion – toxicity (ADMET) profile of the 13 compounds were studied and the result showed only four of them (eurycomalactone, crocetin, picrocrocin and crocusatin D) possessed the characteristics of the good drug. Via molecular docking, it was found all four compounds bound to DPP-4, with the highest binding affinity was observed in eurycomalactone-DPP4 interaction. Eurycomalactone was found to bind to DPP-4 at His363, Ile407, Ile374, Arg356, as well as two amino acids that have previously shown to interact with DPP-4 inhibitor, Phe357 and Arg358. This study indicates that eurycomalactone from Eurycoma longifilia can potentially be developed into a new dpp-4 inhibitor.
Lamiae Amallah, Ismail El Moudden, Fatima Gaboun, Mohan D Pant, Souad Skalli, Rachida Hassikou and Mona Taghouti
ASSESSMENT OF THE EVOLUTION OF DURUM WHEAT END-USE QUALITY FROM DOMESTICATION TO BREEDING ACHIEVEMENTS
The quality characteristics of durum wheat are important parameters to consider in developing grain products. Here we assessed the end-use quality of a collection of 294 durum wheat from several genetic resources including Mediterranean landraces, Moroccan varieties, and international lines using various standardized methods. To achieve this goal, sample seeds for each genotype were subjected to the most important features determining the commercial value of durum wheat, according to standardized methods; gluten strength (SDS), grain protein content (PC), yellow pigment concentration (YP), yellow index (b), brightness (L), test weight (TW), 1000-kernel weight (TKW), and kernel vitreousness (VIT) were assessed. There were decreases over time in yellow pigment content and protein levels from landraces to Moroccan cultivars, via international lines. These findings might be directly used by farmers interested in cultivating traditional varieties for specialized food markets. Genotype selection based on multiple traits is a key issue in plant breeding; breeders practice selection on target traits to improve productivity but need to consider unfavorable associations among key traits of similar economic interest.
Lucky Poh Wah Goh, Arnold Marshall Molujin, Roslina Jawan, Mohd Khalizan Sabullah, Suraya Abdul Sani and Jualang Azlan Gansau
ANTI-CANCER POTENTIAL OF STING AND STINGLESS BEE PRODUCTS: AN UPDATED SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
Modern science and tools have found that traditionally used bee products could serve as alternative medicine and treatments. However, bee is under-studied and the bioactivity of sting and stingless bee products remain inconclusive. This systematic review aims to report a concise and updated finding on the potential anti-cancer activities of bee products. The article search strategy was performed according to PRISMA guide-lines and retrieved 425 articles. The authors assessed the titles, abstracts and full-text articles for suitability and data retrieval. The data from 16 articles were deliberated and summarized. Based on the information of this systematic review, bee products have great anti-cancer activity against various types of cancers and the activity is dependent on the type of product bee species. Bee species products can be further utilized and explored as an alternative medicine for cancer patients' treatments or healthy individuals as preventive medicine.
M.Z. Nawahwi, S. N. Maadon, N.A Hasan, N.I Hasbullah, M.S Mohd Zan
ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI FROM UiTM-PERHILITAN RESEARCH STATION, KUALA KENIAM, PAHANG, MALAYSIA
Endophytic fungi live inside plant tissues and do not degrade or produce chemicals that infect the host cell. Because of their species richness and diversity, endophytic fungi are an underutilised source of pharmacologically relevant chemicals. Hence, this study was conducted to isolate, identify and characterize endophytic fungi from the sampling site at UiTM-Perhilitan Research Station in Kuala Keniam, Pahang, Malaysia. In the present work, three different components (leaf, root, and stem) of four different plant species were randomly collected. The morphology of isolates was characterized based on mycelial texture, pigmentation, colony appearance, and spores, which were then subjected to molecular analysis. In total, 32 endophytic isolates were successfully obtained. Relatively, leaf samples were found to have greater colonization frequency in plant B (72.7%) as compared to root and stem parts. Morphological analysis clustered the isolates into 15 different groups and revealed that all the isolates belonged to Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phylum. Molecular identification by using ITS universal primer identified two isolates as Candida metapsilosis (C9) and Clonostachys roses (D13). However, 12 isolates were recorded as unidentified groups. The findings of this study point to the possibility of further research on bioactive substances produced by these two endophytic fungi.
Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim, Auwal Adamu, Murtala Bindawa Isah, Aminu Usman, Raphael Aminu, Mujaheed Abubakar, Hassan Ibrahim, Khadija Aminu, Fauziyya Lawal Ahmad
STIGMASTEROL ATTENUATES OXIDATIVE STRESS IN SOME ORGANS OF Trypanosoma congolense INFECTED RATS
Stigmasterol has shown positive effects against Trypanosoma congolense, which induced organ pathological changes in rats. Therefore, to unravel a possible mechanism of this action, the effect of stigmasterol on oxidative stress in the liver, kidney, spleen, and heart of T. congolense infected rats was investigated. Rats were infected with T. congolense and on day 11 post-infection, the infected rats were treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (BW) of stigmasterol for 14 days. At the end of the experiment, the levels of reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde as well as the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase were analyzed in the homogenates of liver, kidney, spleen, and heart obtained from the stigmasterol-treated infected rats and compared to non-infected and infected non-treated controls. The data showed evidence of induction of oxidative stress in all the organs caused by the infection. Treatments with the 100 and 200 mg/kg BW of stigmasterol attenuated the T. congolense induced oxidative stress in all the organs as indicated by significant (P < 0.05) amelioration of the levels of most of the markers. A similar trend was observed with diminazene aceturate, used as a standard drug. It is concluded that stigmasterol could attenuate T. congolense induced oxidative stress which might be due to a direct free radical scavenging effect or a consequence of the reported parasite clearance.
Nor Sabrina Shek Daud, Anna Pick Kiong Ling, Ying Pei Wong, Rhun Yian Koh and Kenny Gah Leong Voon
ROLE OF ORIENTIN AGAINST BETA-AMYLOID INDUCED CELL DEATH IN SH-SY5Y HUMAN NEURONAL CELLS
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. Accumulation of beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaque has led to anti-inflammatory response, tau hyperphosphorylation and eventually neuronal apoptosis. Current treatment options only reduce the symptoms of AD but not curing the root cause of the problem. This brings us to a search for potential drugs that could tackle the cause of AD. Past studies have shown that orientin is neuroprotective due to its antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. Hence, this study aims to investigate the mechanism of action of orientin against Aβ-induced cell death in SH-SY5Y human neuronal cells. The SH-SY5Y cells were pre-treated with maximum non-toxic dose (MNTD) and half MNTD (½ MNTD) of orientin (20 μM and 10 μM, respectively) for 4 hours and further exposed to the inhibitory concentration of 50% (IC50) of Aβ (53 μM) for 24 hours. After pre-treating the Aβ-challenged cells with orientin, the cell apoptosis, caspase 3/7, 8 and 9 assays as well as the expression of mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) proteins were determined. MNTD, ½ MNTD and IC50 were pre-determined using 2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by Hoechst staining and changes in caspases were determined using luminescent assay kits. Finally, protein detection was carried out using western blot. The percentage of apoptotic cells exposed to Aβ was reduced when pre-treated with orientin either at MNTD or ½ MNTD. Findings from caspase activities revealed a reduction in caspase 3/7 activities when pre-treated with orientin at MNTD. Analysis of the MAPK pathway revealed that orientin at ½ MNTD could downregulate the expression of p38 and JNK proteins. This study demonstrated that orientin could inhibit Aβ-induced cell death in SH-SY5Y cells through the MAPK signalling pathway and caspase cascade.
Nur Suraya Ashikin Rosli, Shafinaz Abd Gani, Mohd Ezuan Khayat, Uswatun Hasanah Zaidan and Mohd Badrin Hanizam Abdul Rahim
COMPARING THE BEHAVIOUR OF HUMAN AND RODENT BETA CELL LINES FOR IN VITRO DIABETES MELLITUS STUDY
For the past 30 years, considerable effort has been made to generate useful rodent and human insulin-secreting cell lines to understand the complexity and functionality of the pancreatic beta cells. Since then, numerous types of research have been carried out using these cell lines to assess the pathology of diabetes mellitus. Among them, the cell lines INS-1, MIN6, 1.1B4 and EndoC-βH1 are the most widely used due to their stability and appropriate response to glucose stimulation. With multiple choices of cell lines available, there is a question of which cell line can be the best cell model for in vitro pancreatic beta cell study. The characterisation of each of these cell lines has already been vigorously studied, but there is still the need to understand how rodent and human cell lines differ from each other in order to choose the most appropriate cell model for a specific study. In this review, we explore the differences between human and rodent insulin-secreting cell lines in terms of their culturing condition, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and reaction toward oxidative stress. Together, it is hoped that these comparisons could provide new perspectives for researchers in dealing with the available insulin-secreting cell lines for their in vitro diabetic studies.