Malay. J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2019) 22 (3)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Nur Nadhirah Zakaria, Ahmad Fareez Ahmad Roslee, Azham Zulkharnain, Claudio Gomez-Fuentes, Mansur Abdulrasheed, Suriana Sabri, Nancy Calisto-Ulloa and Siti Aqlima Ahmad
BACTERIAL GROWTH AND DIESEL BIODEGRADATION IN THE PRESENCE OF As, Cu AND Pb BY ANTARCTIC MARINE BACTERIA
Antarctica is considered to be low-impacted by anthropogenic activities despite the rising activities occurring in the Southern Ocean. Rising human activities from within Antarctica and external sources resulted in hydrocarbon and heavy metal pollution and create more and more evidence on how much anthropogenic pollution has influenced the southern polar region. Bioremediation possibilities in these parts are very limited in terms of maximum efficiency due to its unique climatic conditions. Furthermore, heavy metals come hand in hand with hydrocarbon pollution and there is a call to obtain. In the present study, diesel degradation was inhibited the most by Pb (31.75%), As (34.35%) and lastly Cu (48.91%) in comparison to control flask (65.19%). Bacterial growth was most inhibited by Cu. Pb had little effect to the growth of bacteria in comparison to As and Cu. Growth rates were obtained by fitting the Exponential mathematical model to the data and obtaining individual growth rates and measures of good fit. ANOVA analysis of the growth obtained P values of control, As and Pb to be <0.05 while Cu gave a P>0.05.
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Syazani Darham, Claudio Gomez-Fuentes, Azham Zulkharnain, Suriana Sabri, Nancy Calisto-Ulloa, Nicolás Ramírez-Moreno and Siti Aqlima Ahmad
ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF MOLYBDENUM-REDUCING COLD-ADAPTED MARINE BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM BERNARDO O’HIGGINS RIQUELME BASE STATION, ANTARCTICA
Molybdenum (Mo) pollution is an emerging problem in some parts of the world. Traces of Mo can be found in the soil and snow even in the most remote part on earth, Antarctica. Bioremediation of Mo using microorganisms has been an up-and-coming alternative in cleaning up Mo from the environment. Mo reduction is a process that transforms sodium molybdate with an oxidation state of 5+ or 6+ to Mo-blue, a less toxic form of the compound. The objectives of this research are to screen, isolate and identify the best cold-adapted Mo-reducing bacterial strain isolated from marine water samples at Bernardo O’Higgins Riquelme Base Station, Antarctica. A total of 11 psychrotolerant strains were seen able to reduce Mo and further studied to determine their taxonomic position using phylogenetic analysis. Based on 16S rRNA identification, the strains were identified as Shewanella sp., Staphylococcus sp. and Marinomonas sp. This study suggests the potential use of the best Mo-reducing cold-adapted bacteria, strain Marinomonas sp. strain AQ5-A9, on the remediating of Mo in the Antarctic region.
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M. Ali Sarong , S. Supriyatno, Asiah M.D., Mimie Saputri, S. Safika, Asri Mursawal, Wenni Novita Sari & Agung S. Batubara
DNA HOMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE GELOINA SHELL IN REULEUNG LEUPUNG MANGROVE ECOSYSTEM, ACEH BESAR DISTRICT, ACEH PROVINCE, INDONESIA
Three species of Geloina shells were found in the Reuleung Leupung mangrove ecosystem area, Aceh Besar District, Indonesia which consists of Geloina erosa, G. expansa, and G. coaxana. The phylogenetic relationship of the three closely related species is currently not established. In this study, we analyze the DNA sequence homology of the three Geloina species and compare them with other mangrove shells species stored at NCBI GenBank. The research activities were conducted from July to September 2017, in the area of the Reuleng Leupung mangrove ecosystem where Geloina shells were obtained using destructive sampling method. The results showed that the three Geloina shells have a high similarity with Polymesoda carolina Voucher, Cyrenoida floridana Partial, Cyrenoida floridana Voucher, Glauconome rugosa Voucher, Corbicula fluminea, Glauconome viren Partial, where a very close level of phylogenetic relationship was shown at Polymesoda carolina Voucher sequence homology of 99%. We conclude that due to 99% DNA homology between G. erosa, G. expansa, and G. coaxan and Polymesoda carolina, they are of the same species.
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Ilham Abd Allah Ali Al-Saleem
Celiac Disease and Risk of Lymphoma
Celiac disease (CD) is a popular autoimmune systemic defect producing from consumption of gluten that stores a protein of barley, wheat and rye. A few numbers of individual’s celiac disease continuous atrophy of villous with a raise of mucosa intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) in an intestine, regardless of a rigorous gluten free diets GFD termed refractory celiac disease (RCD). Precocious detection and treatment could be related to avoid disease problems as a malignant lymphoma. The purposes of this research are to epitomize the accessible facts on the (CD) history related to lymphoma, the lymphoma kinds associated with CD , the methods that gluten excite enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma and celiac disease molecular grounds associated with lymphoma.
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Nor Nadia Fadiha Aizuddin, Izyanti Ibrahim, Rusliza Basir, Noor Embi & Hasidah Mohd Sidek
ANTI-MALARIAL AND CYTOKINE-MODULATING EFFECTS OF SODIUM TUNGSTATE IN MURINE MODELS OF CEREBRAL AND SEVERE MALARIA INVOLVE INHIBITION OF GSK3Β MEDIATED VIA ACTIVATION OF BOTH ERK AND Akt SIGNALING
Malaria remains a major global health problem, associated with high morbidity and mortality. Dysregulated production of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines is one of the factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of severe and cerebral malaria. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) which plays a pivotal role in regulating the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines is a potential target for anti-malarial therapeutics. Sodium tungstate (Na2WO4), which exhibits strong normoglycaemic effects, has been reported to cause phosphorylation of GSK3β. The present study aims to evaluate the anti-malarial and cytokine-modulating effects of Na2WO4 using Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) and Plasmodium berghei NK65 (PbN), established models for cerebral and severe malaria respectively. Intraperitoneal administration of Na2WO4 into PbA- or PbN-infected mice resulted in dose-dependent chemo-suppression of parasitaemia. At 50 mg/kg body weight, Na2WO4 treatment resulted in suppression exceeding 60% and improved median survival time of infected mice (14 and 17 days for PbA- and PbN- infected animals compared to 7.5 and 12 days in non-treated control respectively). Na2WO4 treatment also significantly decreased (p>0.05) the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-ɤ and IL-18) whilst significantly increasing levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-4) in mice from both models of malarial infection. In addition, western analysis revealed that in the brain (PbA) and liver (PbN) of infected animals administered with Na2WO4, the intensities of pGSK3β (Ser9), pERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204), pp90RSK (Ser380) and pAkt (Ser473) were increased significantly whilst pNF-κB (Ser536) was decreased compared to controls. Taken together our results indicate that anti-malarial and cytokine-modulating effects of Na2WO4 observed involve at least in part the regulation of NF-κB through inhibition of GSK3β mediated via activation of ERK/p90RSK as well as Akt signaling. Our findings reiterate the importance of GSK3β as a molecular target for anti-malarial therapeutics.
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Anton S. Tkachenko, Galina I. Gubina-Vakulyck, Oksana I. Kauk, Anatolii I. Onishchenko, Esmira V. Shekhovtsova & Oksana A. Nakonechna
CHANGES IN S100 PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN THE CEREBELLUM OF RATS ORALLY EXPOSED TO ENERGY DRINKS
The aim of our study was to assess the rate of S100 protein expression in the cerebellum of rats orally exposed to caffeinated energy drinks (CED) during 2 and 4 weeks. Twenty WAG rats were enrolled in the experiment. They were subdivided into three groups. The animals from group 1 and group 2 (n=7 in each) were orally exposed to a caffeinated energy beverage “Black” at a dose of 12 ml per kg of body weight during two and four weeks, respectively. The control group consisted of 6 intact rats obtained drinking water instead of a caffeine-containing energy drink. Cerebellar S100 expression was evaluated immunohistochemically. Against the background of CED oral administration during two and four weeks, the density of granule cell layer becomes lower indicating neuronal loss. S100 protein was upregulated in group 1 in the entire cerebellar cortex. Thus, CED oral exposure resulted in the development of cerebellar astrogliosis. Four-week-long CED consumption resulted in S100 downregulation in the molecular and granular layers. Our findings demonstrate the damage to the cerebellum in rats exposed to CEDs with overexpression of S100, followed by a decrease in its expression.
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Ayah Rebhi Hilles, Syed Mahmood, Mohd Arifin Kaderi & Ridzwan Hashim
IDENTIFICATION OF THE BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS OF SKIN MUCUS FROM ASIAN SWAMP EEL (Monopterus albus) USING LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY QUADRUPOLE-TIME-OF-FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY
Asian swamp eels have been widely accepted as sources of food, especially among various Asian cultures. However, their potential values as novel sources of therapeutic agents have not been widely appreciated. Like most other tropical fishes and amphibians, the outer integumentary system of Monopterus albus is covered with mucus layers, which may act as a mechanical and biochemical barrier for their skin. The biochemical components of these mucus layers may have certain compounds that may be medically beneficial to human. The current study was interested to screen the bioactive compounds of skin mucus from the tropical Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus) using Liquid Chromatography Quadrupole-Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS), for this purpose, eel skin mucus extract was used for LC-QTOF-MS analysis. The screening results for the bioactive compounds revealed different bioactive compounds which possess multiple biological properties mainly anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In conclusion, the current study illustrated that eel skin mucus contain different bioactive compounds which might be consider as therapeutic-promising agents.
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Edmund Ui-Hang Sim and Keh-Li Yew
PUTATIVE TARGET PROTEINS OF THE RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN, RPeL27 IN NASOPHARYNGEAL CARCINOMA CELLS
The pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is multifactorial and multigenic. Despite the identification of several NPC-associated ribosomal proteins (RPs), the roles of these factors and their interacting partners in NPC tumourigenesis are poorly understood. To date, NPC- associated RP genes are either up or down-regulated in diseased/tumour situation compared to normal condition. The ribosomal protein eL27 (RPeL27) has been known to be over-expressed at both transcript and protein levels in NPC cell lines. This hypothesis was reinforced by our study herein. More importantly, using gene knockdown (RNA interference technique) followed by 2D gel electrophoresis (2D GE) and in silico analysis; we revealed 15 proteins that are likely to interact with RPeL27 during situation of NPC tumourigenesis. These include COTL1, MAGOHB, UBE2N, NDPKA, TMED10, PSMB6, CA2, PGAM1, RPeL14, RPeS8, TPI1, PSMA2, RPeL19, GSTP1, and TPM1. Their association with RPeL27 could attribute to gene expression alteration, cell migration disruption and invasion, promotion of cancer cell survival, immune evasion, and genomic instability. Our findings provide new theoretical insights into the mechanism and involvement of RPeL27 in NPC pathogenesis. This is pertinent in understanding the molecular pathogenesis mediated by ribosomal proteins in the malignancy of the nasopharyngeal tissues.
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Harika Vemugadda, Prajna P Shetty, Monalisa Biswas, Revathi P Shenoy, Nalini K
ERYTHROCYTE ARGINASE ACTIVITY AND SERUM NITRIC OXIDE IN DIABETES MELLITUS
The study is to estimate and correlate the erythrocyte arginase activity and serum nitric oxide levels in normal, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This is a case control study with total 124 samples which were grouped as normal, pre-diabetes and diabetes based on HbA1C values. Blood samples were collected from Clinical Biochemistry laboratory, Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, after the completion of HbA1C analysis. Erythrocyte Arginase activity is estimated by measuring the ornithine formed by Chinard reaction and Arginase activity is expressed as ornithine released per minute per gram hemoglobin under assay conditions. Nitric oxide is estimated by reducing the serum nitrate to nitrite by using Griess reaction method. The increase in arginase activity was seen in both prediabetes and diabetes compared to normals. Compared to normal group, there was significant decrease in nitric oxide level in pre diabetes (P=0.013) however decrease is not significant in type 2 diabetes. Significant positive correlation between the arginase and nitric oxide levels is seen in normals and type 2 diabetes whereas negative correlation in prediabetes. Increase in arginase activity is indirectly affecting the nitric oxide levels and causing the macrovascular (atherosclerosis, hypertension, gangrene of foot, diabetic neuropathy) and microvascular (diabetic nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy) complications in type 2 diabetic patients.
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Norshidah Harun, Khairul Anwar Azmi, Fazrin Adhwa Shaifulbahri & Gouri Kumar Dash
ANTIBACTERIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TEST OF Channa striatus FILLETS AND MUCUS AGAINST Staphylococcus aureus AND Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Channa striatus is an indigenous fresh water carnivorous air breathing fish species and widely distributed in Malaysia. This white boneless meaty and tender taste edible fish is both a popular food of choice and a natural remedy in traditional medicine due to its pharmacological activities such antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, cell proliferation and many more. Due to these salutary values of this natural product, Channa striatus often being studied in countless times in order to determine valuable information which researcher may gain. Therefore, the determination of effect exerted from both extracts particular in antibacterial activity was conducted to provide antibacterial effectivity for future formulation development. In this study, we followed the method of Wei et al. (2015) for the collection of Channa striatus mucus. Whilst for the fillets, the extraction method of Morachis-Valdez et al. (2017) and Susakate, S. et al. (2019) were referred. As both products were strongly claimed to have beneficial towards wound healing, the antibacterial investigation was carried out against two important pathogens causing wound infection. Comparing the two, Channa striatus has shown a better inhibition zone against Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to Staphylococcus aureus. As conclusion, the potential values of Channa striatus fillets and mucus extracts need to be studied in greater detail covers the aspects of raw materials, extraction standardization to the formulation development in order to create a new natural sources product that potentially could act as alternative agent to fight bacterial infection and heal wound much quicker than natural healing process.
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Yiing Jye Yap, Khuen Yen Ng, Rhun Yian Koh & Soi Moi Chye3
THE PRO-APOPTOTIC MECHANISMS OF MELATONIN IN CANCER
Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Various therapies including chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery and hormone therapy have been used in the past decades to treat cancers. However, most treatments are associated with unwanted side effects; therefore a better anticancer approach that has less severe side effects and better efficacy is needed. Melatonin is an endogenous indolamine hormone that is mainly produced and secreted by pineal gland. It has oncostatic properties and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. This review describes the pro-apoptotic mechanisms of melatonin on a variety of tumor cells.
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Talal Sabhan Salih, Muhammad Abdul-Ghani Muhammad and Mohammed Abdul-Razaq Ibraheem
MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS USING 16S RIBOSOMAL RNA AND MULTIPLE HOUSEKEEPING GENES OF A BIOACTIVE Streptomyces sp. ISOLATED FROM MOSUL, IRAQ
The genus of Streptomyces is the most well known candidate producer of antibiotics and many pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) has shown to be a promising method for streptomycetes taxonomy. In this study, a new bioactive Streptomyces sp. designated TMM19 was isolated from Mosul city, Iraq. The isolate grown strong on all International Streptomyces Project (ISP) media and exhibited different colours of aerial mycelia. S. sp. TMM19 strain displayed bioactivity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 43300), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 51299) and Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 23857) pathogens. The results of phylogenetic analyses showed that S. sp. TMM19 was most related to Streptomyces sp. ZFG47 (accession no. CP030073.1) and S. actuosus (accession no. CP029788.1) based on the 16S rRNA genes tree, and to S. sp. Z022 (accession no. CP033073.1) and S. puniciscabiei (accession no. CP017248.1) based on MLSA of three protein-coding genes (atpD, recA and rpoB). The merged 16S rRNA and the three housekeeping genes phylogenetic tree showed that S. sp. TMM19 was again most related to sp. ZFG47 and S. actuosus, this might be explained by the highly conserved of 16S rRNA gene among Streptomyces strains. The 16S rRNA gene of Streptomyces sp. TMM19 strain was deposited in the GenBank database (NCBI) under the accession no. MN062265.1.
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Umar A. A1*., Fakai, I. M & Bagudo, A. I
EXPRESSION OF RECOMBINANT HUMAN EXONUCLEASE1 (HEXO1) FROM BACTERIA
Human exonuclease1 (hExo1) directly involves in many events of DNA processing such as replication, mismatch repair (MMR), and double strand break repair (DSBR), and can also act as a sensor to lesion and inducer of apoptosis in the event of DNA lesion. Human Exo1 protein was functionally expressed in E. coli strain BL21-CodonPlus (DE3)-RIL. Expression of hEXo1 in E. coli under the transcriptional regulation of the T7 promoter yielded a soluble cytosolic monomeric protein with an apparent molecular mass of 110 kDa, as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Recombinant hExo1 was purified to near homogeneity using a two-step purification procedure that involves affinity chromatography using heparin column and size-exclusion chromatography. A yield of about 100 μg of the hExo1 protein could be purified from 500 mL of E. coli strain BL21-CodonPlus (DE3)-RIL cells. The purified protein was analysed by LC-ESI-tandem MS on a Q-TOF2 mass spectrometer fitted with a nanoflow ESI (electrospray ionization) source and confirmed to be hExo1.