CURRENT ISSUE

August 2019 

Malay. J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2019) 22 (2)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page 1-5

Roseline Wai Kuan Yap, Mei-Hua Lin, Yoshihiro Shidoji and Wai Sum Yap

ASSOCIATION AND GENE-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION EFFECT OF VEGFR-2 GENE POLYMORPHISM WITH MENTAL HEALTH ON METABOLIC RISK FACTORS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN CHINESE MALAYSIAN FEMALE ADULTS

Abstract 

Female adults in Malaysia are prone to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mental health problems. Significant associations of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) gene rs2071559 polymorphism were reported in Asian populations. This study aimed to examine the association and interaction effects of VEGFR-2 gene rs2071559 polymorphism with mental health on metabolic risk factors of CVD in Chinese Malaysian female adults. Physical measurements: body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BFP), blood pressure; and biomarkers: blood glucose (BG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were determined. Job Stress Scale (JSS), Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21), and Rhode Island Stress and Coping Inventory (RISCI) questionnaires were used to measure job stress, mental health (stress, anxiety and depression), and coping with perceived stress. A total of 81 Chinese Malaysian female adults were included. The allele frequency for rs2071559 (C; T allele) was 0.41; 0.59, and significant genetic association was obtained with HbA1c levels (p=0.034) after adjusting for potential confounders. Significant correlations were obtained for stress with BMI (r=-0.022; p=0.046), depression with BFP (r=-0.242; p=0.030); and stress coping with BG (r=0.303; p=0.006). Significant gene-environment interaction effects were obtained for rs2071559 with stress (p=0.015) and depression (p=0.038) on HDL-C levels. Significant associations and interaction effects of rs2071559 polymorphism and mental health were obtained for metabolic risk factors of CVD in Chinese Malaysian female adults. Further investigation to confirm the findings is required, including promotion of healthy mental health in prevention of CVD including metabolic risk factors. 

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Page 6-11

Faizan Naeem Razaliab, Adawiyah Suriza Shuibb and Nurhayati Zainal Abidin 

 

PREDICTION OF SIGNALING PATHWAY INDUCED BY Solanum nigrum POLYSACCHARIDE FRACTION, SN-ppF3 IN ACTIVATING RAW 264.7 MACROPHAGE CELLS 

Abstract 

 Previously, the Solanum nigrum polysaccharide fraction, SN-ppF3 was proven to have an immunomodulatory activity by classically activating RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. However, the cellular pathway induced by SN-ppF3 has not to be outlined. In the present study, we predicted the possible cellular pathways induced when macrophage cells were treated with SN-ppF3. The cells were treated with SN-ppF3 for 24 hours and microscopically observed for any morphological due to the treatment. Pinocytosis analysis was carried out to revalidate SN-ppF3 capability as an immunomodulator and also to serve as cytotoxicity evaluation. To outline the signaling pathway induced the cell lysate of 24 hours SN-ppF3-treated macrophage cells were subjected to inflammation analysis through ELISA approach. After the treatment, the morphology of RAW 264.7 cells was obviously altered and pinocytosis activity was significantly increased. In response to the treatment, several phosphorylated proteins such as IκB-α, p38, and NF-κB p65 were significantly up-regulated. Our study suggested that SN-ppF3 treatment could classically activate macrophage through NF-κB pathways which closely similar to the pathway induced by LPS. 

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Page 12-16

Abdulmoneim M. A.Kannah, Abdul Sattar J. Z. Al-Hayani and Mahmoud I. Al-Jubouri

 

THE BIOLOGICAL ABILITY OF Chara sp. ALGAE TO ABSORB NICKEL FROM THE ENVIRONMENT 

Abstract 

Chlorophyta algae (Chara Sp.) were selected and dried. The effective groups of algae responsible for adsorption using infrared (COOH, C = O and CH) were identified and negative groups such as (OH), (P = O), (CO3), (CH2), (Cl) and (Br) on the surface of the algae, and (2) g and treated with a series of different concentrations (0.5,10,20,40,100) mg L-1 of nickel ion where the coefficients were incubated at a temperature of (25 ° C). After the incubation period, the equilibrium stabilizers were extracted and the nickel was estimated and mathematically described according to the Equations (single and two surfaces Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin and Polani) respectively for nickel. It was found that the values of the coefficient of selection were significant for all equations, which gives a clear indication of the possibility of using any of these six equations, but the equation of the two surface Langmuir is the most efficient in the mathematical description of adsorption, In addition, this equation showed a very large correlation between the actual adsorption values and the calculated values of this equation because they have the least standard error (SE) (0.0002) and the highest coefficient of determination (R2) (1.00), Which earns the advantage in mathematical description on the rest of the equations. The value of the maximum adsorption capacity (Xm) on the first and second surface of algae (1.60) and (7.47) mg. Kg -1, while the binding capacity (K) on the first and second surfaces (75.23) and (41.81) L.mg-1, respectively. 

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Page 17-20

Ahmed AbdulJabbar Suleiman, HananYassin Muhsin, Rafid A. Abdulkareem and Farah Amer Abed 

EFFICIENCY OF PRIMER DESIGN TOOLS IN EVALUATION OF TWO MOLECULAR METHODS TO DETECT TWO SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS RELATED WITH ATHEROSCLEROSIS 

Abstract 

Atherosclerosis is one of the most important coronary artery disease(CAD) caused by lipid accumulation, hypertension, smoking ,and many other factors such as environmental and genetic factors, its recorded that genetic variations in rs10757278, rs1333049correlated with CAD.In present study,100 blood samples were collected(50CAD patients and 50 appeared to be healthy controls), who referred to Ibn-Albytar general hospital/in Bagdad city for heart disease from February to March 2019.Genotyping for two SNPs rs10757278, rs1333049 were done by Allele specific PCR and Tetra ARMS technique.The results revealed that, Tetra ARMS technique is more accurate to detect the mutant and normal cases than allele specific PCR. In conclusion, Tetra ARMS technique was suggested to be more specific, sensitive and accurate method used as a molecular biology tool to detect genetic polymorphisms. 

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Page 21-25

Hala Mouayed Radif, Mustafa Nadhim Owaid and Rusol Mohammed Al-Bahrani

EVALUATION INFLUENCE OF EXTRACT OF Terfezia claveryi DESERT TRUFFLE, PEZIZACEAE, AGAINST Streptococcus pneumoniae, IN VIVO 

Abstract 

This study aims to use extract of desert truffle Terfezia claveryi for treatment the infected mice by Streptococcus pneumoniae. The bacterium S. pneumoniae isolated from patients infected with Pneumonia. Sputum diagnosis of bacteria depended on serological, biochemical and hemolysis tests to identify S. pneumoniae. Aqueous extract of T. claveryi was used as an antibacterial agent in vivo and studied all the changes in the liver and kidney. The changes in kidney function tests, lipid profile and the liver Enzymes also have studied after taking place the infection by this bacterium and compared with the treatment by aqueous extract of T. claveryi. Using extract of this truffle was amazing in the cases of Blood Urea, Serum Creatinin, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL, GOT, GPT, and ALP which returned significantly (p<0.05) to the normal state like in the control. The infected liver and kidney tissues by the bacterium exhibited degeneration, necrosis and hemorrhage while they returned to normal state after the treatment by aqueous extract of T. claveryi. Hence, the introduction of T. claveryi in the pharmacological field is remarkable, especially in the treating of S. pneumoniae infections. 

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Page 26-36

Ifeanacho Mercy O., Ikewuchi Catherine C. and Ikewuchi Jude C. 

NUTRIENT AND BIOACTIVE PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF Cnidoscolus aconitifolius 

Abstract 

Cnidoscolus aconitifolius is consumed as a vegetable in many parts of Southern Nigeria. Presently, there is no information regarding the allicins alkaloids, carotenoids, glycosides, phytosterols, saponins and terpenoids profiles of the leaves and stems of this vegetable. The proximate, minerals, vitamins, amino acid, carotenoids, saponins, glycosides, phytosterols, terpenoids, alkaloids and allicins profiles of the leaves and stems of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius were determined using standard methods. The leaves and stems had high fibre (14.0 - 15.2 g/100g), carbohydrate (40.2 - 41.2 g/100g) and protein (22.2 - 24.5 g/100g). These were equivalent to about 56.0-66.9% daily value for fibre, 44.4-49.0% daily value protein and 13.4-15.1% daily value carbohydrate. They had high contents of selenium, copper, manganese, iron, cobalt, magnesium (leaves only) and vitamins E, B9, C and K (stems only), carotenoids, saponins and glycosides; and moderate phytosterols and terpenoids. Their proteins were rich in essential amino acids (42.7-45.6%). Ten known carorenoids were detected in the stems and leaves, consisting mainly of carotene (43.7-46.1%), lutein (20.8-22.5%) and neo-xanthin (10.92-12.99%). Sapogenin (62.99-64.56%) and saponine (24.5-28. 9%) were the most abundant of the eleven saponins detected. Of the twelve known glycosides were detected, artemetin (65.8-67.6%) and digitoxin (24.8-27.7%) were the most abundant. Seven phytosterols were detected, and consisted mainly of sitosterol (63.6-71.3%), stigmasterol (10.9-13.6%) and 5-avenasterol (10.6-11.4%). Beta-amyrin (52.2-66.3%), alpha-amyrin (18.5-31.6%) and lupeol (14.8-15.9%) were the most abundant of the five phytosterols detected. This result indicates that the leaves and stems of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius are good sources of nutrients and bioactive phytochenicals that can support human health and nutrition. This rich profile makes them potential sources of nutraceuticals. 

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Page 37-40

Md Monjurul Ahasan and Sultana Umma Habiba

RESPONSE OF TREHALOSE AS A CARBON SOURCE ON ORGANOGENESIS OF PROTOCORM-LIKE BODIES (PLBS) IN Dendrobium kingianum CULTURED IN VITRO

Abstract 

Plant growth and development are largely dependent on the availability of carbohydrates as well as to serve as energy and carbon source in vitro culture. The aim of these studies was to know the response of trehalose on organogenesis of protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) in and selection of satisfactory application procedure in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium for getting better response in this aspect. First experiment results revealed that there were no significant differences among treatments. In case of second experiment, maximum number of PLBs (19.4) was produced in the medium where PLBs were treated in 5 g/L trehalose for 2 days and then transferred to the sucrose (20 g/L) medium and were kept for five weeks when compared with the control (10.1). Third experiment showed PLBs formation rate was 100% at blue and red LED light treatments whereas shoot formation was highest (3.8) at red LED light.

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Page 41-45

Azantee Yazmie Abdul Wahab,Muhammad Lokman Md Isa, Haiyuni Mohd Yassim, Yukmil Amru Salleh, Afzan Mat Yusof, Redzuan Nul Hakim Abdul Razak, Nik Fakhuruddin Abdul Razak, Hussin Muhammad and Muhammad Alif Mazlan

IDENTIFICATION OF HYALURIC ACID SYNTHESIS 2 (HAS2) AND GREMLIN 1 (GREM1) GENE EXPRESSIONS IN HUMAN CUMULUS CELLS AS A BIOMARKER FOR OOCYTE QUALITY 

Abstract 

Nowadays, the criteria for oocyte selection is based on morphological criteria however, it needs further improvement to select the best embryo quality. The gene expression in the cumulus cell plays important role in signaling for follicular development as well as for oocyte quality. The aim of this study is to investigate the present of HAS2 and GREM1 gene expression in the cumulus cells that can become a useful marker for oocyte quality. A preliminary study was performed on cumulus cells derived from four different patients that undergo assisted reproductive technique treatment. Cumulus cells were isolated from 4 patients and the expression of HAS2 and GREM1 was analyzed by using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt- PCR). The results shown that HAS2 and GREM1 were expressed in grade 3 oocytes, whereas, the genes were absent in grade 4 oocytes. This showed that the expression influenced the oocyte quality. Hence, the measurement of HAS2 and GREM1 expressions in cumulus cells would reliably useful tool for selecting competence oocytes with greater chances to be fertilized in assisted reproductive technique. 

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Page 46-51

Gayathiri Verasoundarapandian, Syazani Darham and Siti Aqlima Ahmad

 

TOXICITY OF MOLYBDENUM AND MICROBIAL APPLICATION IN MOLYBDENUM REDUCTION FOR BIOREMEDIATION: A MINI REVIEW 

Abstract 

Molybdenum (Mo) is one the most widely used trace element in many industries and exhibit an important role in humans, animals and plant. Large quantities of hazardous Mo waste released by anthropogenic activities from industrialisation and advancement of technology tremendously increase the burden on the aquatic and soil environments. High accumulation or prolonged exposure of heavy metal such as Mo can cause deleterious health effects on ruminants and aquatic biota as its low toxicity towards human. However, the toxicity of Mo has been reported in spermatogenesis and embryo of mice and fish respectively. Its pollution from several hundreds to thousands of part per million has been documented in water and soils worldwide. Increased level of Mo can pollute the river and bring severe damage to the ecosystem. Bioremediation of heavy metals by microbes in removing the pollutants became more crucial in addressing worldwide environmental pollutions. The mini review summarises the applications of microorganisms in Mo reduction that would be beneficial to future studies on environmental reduction of Mo. 

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Page 52-59

Nur Nadhirah Zakaria, Zakaria Man, Azham Zulkharnain and Siti Aqlima Ahmad 

 

PSYCHROTOLERANT BIOSURFACTANT-PRODUCING BACTERIA FOR HYDROCARBON DEGRADATION: A MINI REVIEW 

Abstract 

Biosurfactants are a structurally diverse group of surface-active substances synthesised by microorganisms. All biosurfactants have tremendous potential ranging from medicine to environmental applications especially in hydrocarbon remediation. Petroleum pollution is a major issue in both cold and temperate climate countries. These hydrocarbon pollutants have low solubility and high solid-water distribution ratios, thus limiting the interaction between microbial cells. Petroleum pollution is a major issue in both cold and temperate climate countries. In Antarctica, due to the recalcitrant nature of hydrocarbon components coupled with the region’s extremely weather conditions, there were difficulties faced by bioremediation approaches. However, using biosurfactant in hydrocarbon bioremediation increases the bioavailability of hydrocarbon, thus expediting bioremediation. Few studies have reported on psychrotolerant bacterial species that are able to degrade hydrocarbon and produce biosurfactants. This review focuses on psychrotolerant bacteria with the potential to synthesise biosurfactants and degrade hydrocarbons. 

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Page 60-63

Haziq Ab. Wahid, Noor Syamila Othman, Azmir Ahmad, Siti Aesah @ Naznin Muhammad, Kahairi Abdullah, Wan Ishlah Leman, Muhammad Izani Mohd. Shiyuti, Luqman Rosla and Mohd. Arifin Kaderi 

 

EXPRESSION OF MICRORNA-101 IN FORMALIN-FIXED PARAFFIN- EMBEDDED SAMPLES OF NASOPHARYNGEAL CARCINOMA 

Abstract 

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is among the five most common malignancies in Malaysia. Most NPC patients are diagnosed at late stages of the disease which complicates the clinical management of the patients. Identification of new reliable biomarker is crucial to improve early diagnosis of NPC and increase the survival rate of patients. Recent study found that microRNAs (miRNAs), particularly miR-101, were involved in the tumorigenesis of head and neck cancer where NPC samples were included in the study. This study was conducted to observe the expression of miR-101 in NPC tumour tissues and compare its consistency with previous study as a step towards finding the new biomarker for NPC. The biopsy samples were obtained from hospitals and verified histologically using hematoxylin and eosin method for tissue classification. Total RNA was extracted from NPC tissues and normal nasopharyngeal epithelium tissues. The expression of miR-101 in NPC was quantified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method. The differential expression of miR-101 in NPC as compared to normal nasopharyngeal epithelium tissues was analysed using 2-ΔΔCT calculation. The significance of the differential expression was analysed using SPSS software. Five samples have been verified as NPC and three samples were normal nasopharyngeal epithelium. The differential expression calculation found that miR-101 was downregulated in NPC as compared to normal nasopharyngeal epithelium tissues, which consistent with previous study. However, the differential expression was not significant. Therefore, our finding provides a preliminary result towards embarkment of a larger and comprehensive study. 

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Page 64-68

Atsadaporn Pakdeelun and Jantaporn Thongekkaew 

 

SCREENING AND OPTIMIZATION OF β-GLUCOSIDASE PRODUCTION BY Candida sp. JK9/1 

Abstract 

A total of 73 yeast strains were screened for an extracellular β-glucosidase producing ability by using substrate p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucoside (pNPG). Among them strain JK9/1 showed the maximum β-glucosidase activity which was further identified as Candida sp. strain JK9/1 based on ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and D1/D2 domains of the subunit (26S) ribosomal DNA. Optimum conditions for β-glucosidase production were determined using different biophysical and biochemical parameters. The maximum -glucosidase production was obtained in the optimum medium containing 1.5% (w/v) of xylose as a carbon source and 0.02 % (w/v) KNO3 as additional inorganic nitrogen, with an initial medium pH of 4.0 and at 25oC for 6 days of cultivation. Under optimal conditions, Candida sp. strain JK9/1 produced the enzyme of 7.21 ± 0.19 U.mL-1, which was 4.2 times higher than the amount before optimization (1.71±0.03 U.mL-1). This can contribute its β-glucosidase producing ability for a great potential to be used in the biotechnological application. 

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Page 69-73

Laith Sofian Younis, Ali Aziz Abid and Saad Tawfiq Rasheed 

EFFECT OF G(129)R POLYMORPHISM IN GROWTH DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 9 GENE ON AWASSI EWES THAT BREED OUT OF SEASON 

 

Abstract 

Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) is a member of the TGF β superfamily that plays a critical role in ovarian follicular development and ovulation rate. The recent study was performed to identify the linkage between GDF9 mutation (G(129)R) and seasonality in awassi sheep. Thirty mature non-pregnant ewes with were used in this study between September/ 2018 to January/2019. Fifteen ewes were lambed at September and Novamber/2018, which considered Seasonal group, and the Non-Seasonal group which 15 ewes lambed in mid-December and January/2019. Two primers were utilized to amplify exon I of GDF9 gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after DNA extraction from blood specimens. Polymorphisms were revealed via sequencing and compared with the sequencing of the ovine GDF9 gene in NCBI data bases. The results revealed one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) G(129)R in chromosome 5 of GDF9 gene (exon I) when compared with Sequence ID: FJ429111.1, without resulted in an amino acid. Two genotypes (GG and GA) were observed with higher significant differences (P<0.01) between genotypic frequencies of G(129)R locus. The results showed that mutant heterozygote genotype (GA) recorded highly significant increased (P<0.001) in non-seasonal ewes (60.00) as compared with wild homozygote (GG) genotype (40.00). In contrast, genotype frequency (GG) was recorded higher significantly increased (P<0.001) in seasonal ewes (63.00) when compared with (GA) genotype (37.00). As a conclusion, exon I polymorphisms of GDF9 gene in Awassi breed have an expected effect on the Seasonality and the mutant genotype find majorly in out of Season awsassi ewes. 

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Dr. Noor Azmi Shaharuddin
Managing Editor
Email : mjbmbonline@gmail.com
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