Malay. J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2018) 21 (1)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Ejike Udochukwu Camillius, Bo Zhuang. Mian, Crystale Siew Ying Lim, Renee Lay Hong Lim
ANTIBIOTICS RESISTANCE OF COMMENSAL THROAT BACTERIA FROM HEALTHY SUBJECTS
The human oral cavity comprises of a plethora of commensal bacteria and their resistance to antibiotics may arise from inappropriate prescription of antibiotics for sore throat. Current literature is lacking in studies on antibiotic profile of throat commensal bacteria in healthy subjects and thus this study aimed to investigate the throat commensal bacteria’s resistance to 5 antibiotics commonly prescribed for throat infections. Tonsil and posterior pharynx swabs of 50 non-sore throat subjects (aged 19.8±1.8 years) were used for bacterial isolation and identification of isolates using biochemical tests. Isolates were screened for antibiotics resistance using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion and identity of multi-drug resistant (MDR) isolates was confirmed using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS) analysis. Staphylococcus (S. epidermidis and S. aureus) and Micrococcus luteus were most prevalent commensal bacteria detected. Surprisingly, only 12% subjects did not harbor resistant isolates whereas 88% subjects harbored isolates resistant to at least one antibiotic, while 10% subjects harbored MDR isolates resistant to more than three antibiotics. Resistance to amoxicillin was the most prevalent (34.3%), followed by erythromycin (24.3%), cephalexin (23.6%), azithromycin (13.4%) and cefaclor (4.4%); similar to the preferred antibiotics prescribed by primary care providers for sore throat patients. The five MDR isolates were identified to be Chryseobacterium gleum (JL82-3), Chryseobacterium indolegenes (CK95-1) and Stenotrophomonas maltophlia (RJ69-1, RN40-1, JA14-2), rarely found in throat. Due to an alarmingly high prevalence of subjects harboring throat commensal isolates resistant to amoxicillin, erythromycin or cephalexin, this study recommends urgent awareness or intervention by the appropriate regulatory agencies on the prudent use of frontline antibiotics for throat infections.
Yong Hui Tan, Johan Soekwanto, Wei Keat Tan, Crystale Siew Ying Lim, and Hip Seng Yim
ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND PROTEIN CONTENT OF PLEUROTUS DJAMOR CULTIVATED ON RICE HUSK
Introduction: The present work aims to optimise the percentage of rice husk used in Pleurotus djamor (pink oyster mushroom) cultivation. Parameters tested were yield, cultivation duration, protein content, free radical scavenging ability and total phenolic content (TPC). Methods: Mushroom was cultivated in substrate bags containing 5%, 20% and 35% rice husk supplements, no rice husk supplement as control. Free radical scavenging ability and TPC were determined using DPPH and Folin-Ciocalteu methods, while Kjeldahl method was used to determine the protein content of the cultivated pink oyster mushroom. Results: The results showed that highest DPPH radical scavenging ability, total phenolic content, and protein content were observed in pink oyster mushroom cultivated with 35% supplementary rice husk. However, cultivating using 20% rice husk as supplement gives the most economical growth duration (68 days). Conclusion: The present study found that supplementary rice husk has a positive effect (P < 0.05) on the growth, protein content and antioxidant capacity of cultivated pink oyster mushroom.
Izyanti Ibrahim and Paul C. Engel
HALOPHILIC GLUTAMATE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITIES OF HALOBACTERIUM SALINARUM STRAIN NRC-36014 CULTURED IN DIFFERENT GROWTH CONDITIONS
The discovery of four glutamate dehydrogense(s) in the genome of a colourless extreme halophile, H. salinarum strain NRC-36014 raised the question regarding the role of these enzymes in this halophile’s metabolism. NRC-36014 was firstly cultured in different conditions, in terms of temperature, salt concentration and nitrogen source, to establish the pattern of expression of these GDH(s). A basic chemically defined medium for NRC-36014 was also generated as no suitable CDM was available. The optimum salt concentration and percentage for NRC-36014 growth is at 4 to 4.5M NaCl and between 20 to 30%, respectively. As for the growth temperature, NRC-36014 favours between 37°C and 45°C. NRC-36014 grown in a range of salt percentages displayed two different NAD+-GDH activities. NADP+- GDH activity was increased in NRC-36014 grown in high NH4Cl concentrations. However, there were two different NAD+-GDH activity observed too, with a possibility that one of them is from a dual-specificity GDH.
Aisyah Mohd Ismail and Farida Zuraina Mohd Yusof
PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS OF THE ORANG ASLI IN TAMAN NEGARA BASED ON ALU8 BI-ALLELIC MARKERS
Orang Asli is a collection of ethnic groups that are believed to be indigenous peoples of Peninsular Malaysia. Till now, there is very few research carried out in Malaysia involving Orang Asli population. In this study, the evolutionary history and relationship among Orang Asli in Taman Negara is based on the Alu insertion polymorphisms specific to chromosome 8. Alu bi-allelic markers are generally most preferred among others markers, as there is no known mechanism of back-mutation has been reported and this means that they are identical by descent markers. Analysis includes the distribution of Alu polymorphisms specific on chromosome 8 (using PCR) in 49 samples of Orang Asli and also the genetic distance between the tribes (Bateq and Semoq Beri) of Orang Asli in Taman Negara. Results revealed that a total of twenty-one Orang Asli individuals contained APO insertion. Whilst, fourteen Orang Asli individuals contained FXIIIB insertion. Furthermore, there were significant differences occurred in the Alu FXIIIB element compared to the Alu APO element of Orang Asli population based on the phylogenetic trees construction. It is yet to be concluded whether intermarriage or outbreeding occurred within the Orang Asli population as the number of research sample collected was small.
Razak, M.A. , Mishra, R.K. , Bustami Effendi, T.J. and Majeed, A.B.A
MEMANTINE HYDROCHLORIDE LOADED POLY N-VINYL CAPROLACTAM NANOPARTICLES A CANDIDATE FOR NOSE TO BRAIN DELIVERY: FORMULATION AND IN VITRO RELEASE STUDY
Blood brain barrier (BBB) isolates the brain from circulating blood and poses intimidating challenge for the entry of various neuroprotective compounds into the brain. This study aims to formulate and characterize the memantine (MEM) loaded novel poly N-vinyl caprolactam (PNVC) nanoparticles (NPs) to improve brain targeting of MEM via the intranasal route. Novel PNVC NPs were synthesized using the aqueous dispersion polymerization (ADP) method. The remote loading method was used to load MEM into the polymer NPs, followed by characterization with particle size distribution, zeta potential, fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), wide angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and microscopy study. LCMS methods were used for analysis and quantification of MEM. DSC thermogram showed no melting peak of MEM indicating molecular dispersion of the drug in the NPs. The mean particle size measured ranged from 137-142 nm with negative surface charge of zeta potential ranged between -19.8 ± 1.52 to -25.5 ±1.98. The EE% ranged between 19.94% ± 3.75–74.87 ± 3.11. In vitro drug release studies were done using dialysis bag technique for formula PNVC 2 nanoparticles which shown better particle size, PDI and EE (137 ± 3.66 nm, 0.465 ± 0.083, 62.52 ± 3.04 %) respectively. These observations together with other characterization data suggest a stable formulation. Drug release pattern showed an initial burst followed by a steady release, suggestive of a sustained release preparation. Collectively, the observations justify a future in vivo study to quantify the release of intranasal drug into the brain.
Muhammad Farhan, Sana Wali, Fatima Riaz, Safia Habib
PSYCHOSTIMULANT- LIKE BEHAVIORAL SENSITIZATION AND ANOREXIA INDUCED BY MODAFINIL IN RATS
Behavioral sensitization is the phenomenon that occurs when repeated, intermittent drug administration leads to a progressive increase in a response to that drug over time. Modafinil (MOD) is a novel psychostimulant that has shown efficacy in, and was recently marketed for, treating excessive daytime sleepiness associated with narcolepsy. The mechanism of action of modafinil is unknown, but, unlike other stimulants, the drug is highly selective for the central nervous system, has little effect on dopaminergic activity in the striatum, and appears to have a lower abuse potential. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the psychostimulant and sensitization inducing potential of this novel agent using comprehensive neuropsychological behavioral models in rats. Male rats were divided into two groups, control were given water orally and test group rats were administrated with Modafinil daily for 7 days at dose 100 mg/kg/day. Present study revealed that oral administration of MOD increased locomotive activity in familiar and non-familiar environments on repeated administration but not on single administration. Repeated administration of MOD were reported to elicit anxiolytic effects in light dark box and elevated plus maze. In conclusion, present study demonstrated that repeated administration of modafinil enhance the extracellular level of serotonin (5HT), which indicate that modafinil is sufficient to produced psychostimulants effects and reduce anxiety.
ABSTRACTS OF THE 42ND ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE MSBMB