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August 2021
Malay. J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2021) 24 (2)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page 1-9

A.I. Akmal Shukri, N.A. Hasan, F. Ahmad, K. Ramachandran, M.Y. Rafii, A.R. Harun and M.N.A. Manaf

GENETIC DIVERSITY OF SELECTED MALAYSIAN MEGA RICE VARIETIES BASED ON AGRO-MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS

Abstract 

The key to a successful crop improvement program lies in the great discovery of genetic diversity, which uncovers the roles of genes and traits in developing optimally while facing multiple biotic or abiotic factors. The objective of the present study was to investigate the genetic variation of six local mega rice varieties in Malaysia for twelve agro-morphological traits by using multivariate analysis viz., genetic parameters, correlation analysis and cluster analysis. The results showed that the Phenotypic coefficient of variance (PCV) was higher than the Genotypic coefficient of variance (GCV) in all traits among the rice varieties. All the traits recorded high heritability value with the highest value was found for the length of seed at 100% followed by the length of panicle at 99.67%, which could be successfully inherited to the next generations. Traits such as number of tillers, number of panicles, number of filled grain per panicle, number of unfilled grain per panicle, and number of total grain per panicle showed high heritability and high genetic advance could be used as a selection criterion for hybridization programs in the future. Among the studied characters, panicle length and 1000-grain weight are the only characters with positive values for correlation coefficient and direct effect on yield rate per plant. According to UPGMA cluster analysis, the varieties were clustered into four groups. As for the principal cluster analysis, three out of twelve principal components explained 86.24% of total variation among the variety. Rice variety in Cluster II (MR219) and IV (MR297, MR303 and MR307) could be considered for further hybridization to attain a wide spectrum of variation as well as the greatest performances in agro-morphological traits.

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Page 10 - 16

Anfal Fedala, Ounassa Adjroud, Asma Saouli, Imane Salah, Salwa Abid-Essefi, Rim Timoumi

ZINC ALLEVIATES POTASSIUM DICHROMATE-INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN PREGNANT WISTAR RATS

Abstract 

The present study aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of zinc (Zn) against hexavalent chromium-induced hepatotoxicity in pregnant Wistar rats. Female rats were treated subcutaneously (s.c) on the 3rd day of pregnancy, with NaCl 0.9 % and served as control, K₂Cr₂O7 (10 mg/kg bw) alone, or K₂Cr₂O7 in association with ZnCl2 (20 mg/kg bw). Hepatic biochemical parameters, oxidative stress biomarkers and DNA damage were monitored. Results revealed that K₂Cr₂O7 disturbed plasma ALT, AST, ALP and GGT, induced hepatic oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation. The co-treatment with Zn has alleviated K2Cr2O7- induced hepatotoxicity by exhibiting antioxidant and genoprotective effects in pregnant Wistar rats.

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Page 17 - 27

Asma Drioueche and Hocine Boutoumi

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SYMMETRICAL AZINES DERIVATIVES FROM ESSENTIAL OILS RICH IN ALDEHYDES

Abstract 

Symmetrical azines were prepared by the reaction of the hydrazine monohydrate with essential oils extracted from Ammodaucus leucotrichus and Cuminum cyminum L. containing respectively (perillaldehyde: 48.01%) and (cuminaldehyde: 21.60 %, phellandral: 0.10 % and 2-caren-10-al: 25.91 %). The conversion of aldehydes constituting essential oils was estimated by GC/MS, and their structures were confirmed by UV-vis, FTIR, and mass spectrometry analysis. The antimicrobial activity of azine derivatives from essential oils against three bacterial and one fungal strain showed an increase of inhibition zones and a decrease of minimal inhibition diameters (MIC) compared to native essential oils. The obtained azines characterized an important antifungal potential that can be isolated and extended, especially to other more resistant fungal strains.

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Page 28 - 35

Halyna Klymets, Ruslana Iskra, Iryna Kovalchuk, Oksana Svarchevska

CERTAIN INDICATORS OF CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM IN KIDNEYS AND LIVER OF PREGNANT FEMALE RATS UNDER THE EFFECT OF VANADIUM CITRATE

Abstract 

The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of vanadium citrate in different concentrations on glucose and insulin contents in blood plasma, as well as the activity of enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism - lactate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and metabolites of L-lactate and pyruvate in the tissues of kidneys and liver of pregnant rats. The study of the effect of vanadium citrate is relevant since vanadium as an insulin-mimetic can adjust certain links of carbohydrate metabolism in pregnant women. Increased glucose and decreased insulin were detected in the blood plasma of pregnant rats. The findings also revealed the decrease in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and the increase in lactate dehydrogenase activity, along with the increase in pyruvate and L-lactate contents in the kidneys of pregnant animals. In the liver, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase activity rose, pyruvate content increased, and L-lactate content decreased. Under the effect of vanadium citrate at a concentration of 0.5 μg V/ml of water, the glucose content decreased, while the insulin content increased at concentrations of 0.03-0.125 μg V/ml of water. In the kidneys and liver, vanadium citrate effectively normalized carbohydrate metabolism at concentrations of 0.125-0.5 μg V/ml of water. According to the findings, vanadium citrate can be considered as a potential dietary drug to maintain the homeostasis of carbohydrate metabolism in pregnant rats. Its effect lies in a dose-dependent regulation of the activity of enzymes and metabolites of carbohydrate metabolism.

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Page 36 - 53

Hui Ming Chong, Mohamad Aidil Bin Zulkaple, Hong Hao Chan, Chooi Ling Lim, Khuen Yen Ng, Anna Pick Kiong Ling, Soi Moi Chye, Rhun Yian Koh

AN OVERVIEW OF COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE FOR ALZHEIMER’S AND PARKINSON’S DISEASE

Abstract 

Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are two common neurodegenerative diseases that primarily affect the elderly population. AD causes dementia and is associated with disrupted brain structure and function, and its classical hallmarks include the accumulation of the beta-amyloid plaques and the build-up of tau tangles. On the other hand, PD features a myriad of motor aberrations characterised by tremors, postural instability, rigidity, and bradykinesia as a result of the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the brain. Currently, available treatment regimens for AD and PD show limited efficacy in alleviating the symptoms or reversing pathogenesis. Inadvertently, several complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) methods have been linked to symptomatic relief for both conditions. These CAM approaches include the utilisation of natural products, nutritional supplements, acupuncture, and exercise. In this review, a repertoire of CAM therapies and their effectiveness in alleviating AD and PD are discussed.

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Page 54 - 60

Lamia'a Sobhi Saqer*, Ala'a N. Al-Astal, Rawan A. Qamar, Aseel H. Shbair, Hala Y. Al-Astal

EVALUATION OF ELECTROLYTES IMBALANCE AMONG TYPE2 DIABETIC MELLITUS IN SOUTH GAZA STRIP-PALESTINE

Abstract 

Diabetic patients may suffer from imbalanced electrolytes due to complications such as thrombosis, hypertension, neuropathy and cardiomyopathy. Early detection can prevent the complications that occur due to the imbalance distribution. This study was carried out to evaluate the electrolytes imbalance in T2DM. A case-control study consisted of 200 subjects: 105 patients with T2DM collected from primary health care centers and 95 healthy persons as control group gathered from the community. A questionnaire interview was applied. Blood samples were collected in plain tubes. The serum levels of electrolytes: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus were determined. The data were statistically analyzed by SPSS and p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. We found that 61% of cases had a family history of DM but in control was 9.9% which is statistically significant (p=0.000). The means of potassium and phosphorus were not significantly different between both groups, but the potassium and calcium levels were slightly elevated when compared with controls. The means of sodium, calcium and magnesium were statistically significant between both groups (P = 0.012, P = 0.013 and P =0.000 respectively). The percentage of hypomagnesaemia was increased in patients to reach statistically significant (26.67% in DM group and 1.05% in the control with p=0.0006). Hypomagnesaemia is more prevalent in our study in the diabetic population than the other electrolyte abnormalities. Screening for electrolyte imbalances should be considered in the diabetic population and necessary steps might be taken to prevent its consequences. Additional research is suggested for accurate assessment of the association of diabetes and electrolyte imbalance.

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Page 61 - 67

Muhammad Fikri Heikal, Wira Eka Putra, Sustiprijatno, Galuh Wening Permatasari, Dewi Ratih Tirto Sari, Febby Nurdiya Ningsih, Hendra Susanto, Arief Hidayatullah, Alyana Mahdavikia Rosyada Yusuf, Aliyya Suci Arizona, Adawiyah Suriza Shuib

PREDICTION OF PROTEIN-PROTEIN INTERACTION NETWORK IN MALARIA BIOMARKERS AND IMPLICATION AS THERAPEUTIC TARGET

Abstract 

Malaria is a major global health concern, claiming thousands of lives each year. Numerous proteins are involved in the parasitic infection of the host body by malaria. Several of these proteins, including mucin 13 protein (MUC13), Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH), plasmodium glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), and liver-derived glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), have been implicated as biomarkers. These proteins interact with other proteins throughout the liver and blood stages of the plasmodium life cycle. We used computational analysis to uncover protein-protein interactions (PPIs) that might be used to discover new therapeutic targets. Bioinformatics analysis utilizing the stringDB webserver was used to gather PPIs data. The PPIs data set contains the interaction of biomarkers with many proteins as well as the false discovery rate (FDR) for each biological process. Data is provided in the form of an interactive graphic and a table of PPIs. MUC13, PfLDH, Plasmodium GDH, and LISP2 were co-expressed with several proteins in 12 biological processes. In the homeostatic process, the interaction of MUC13 with MUC4, MUC17, and MUC6 has the lowest FDR value of 0.0299. Furthermore, we relate our findings to previous research and predict the implications of these proteins' inhibition.

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Page 68 - 75

Nguyen Thi Hoang Yen, Le Pham Tan Quoc

OPTIMIZATION OF MICROWAVE-ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF PECTIN FROM PASSION FRUIT (Passiflora edulis Sims) PEEL WITH ALKALINE SOLUTION USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

Abstract 

Pectin production from passion fruit peel was carried out using microwave-assisted extraction. The extraction factors (NaOH concentration, liquid to solid (LS) ratio, and extraction time) were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM), which was applied to optimize the yield, purity, and degree of esterification (DE) of pectin by implementing central composite face (CCF) design. The response surface showed the relationships between the independent factors, and the DE value was not affected by these factors. The optimal extraction process was obtained at NaOH concentration of 183 mM, LS ratio of 41 mL/g, and time of 7.5 min. Under these conditions, the model predictions for the yield, purity, and DE value of pectin from passion fruit peel were 14.31%, 87.25%, and 92.94%, respectively, which were verified experimentally at 14.29%, 87.1%, and 93.7%, respectively. This study demonstrated the great efficiency of applying experimental design to characterize the operational parameters influencing the extraction process.

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Page 76 - 81

Nurul Ain Ismail, Azlinah Matawali, Lucky Poh Wah Goh, Ping-Chin Lee, Siew-Eng How and Jualang Azlan Gansau

PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTI-MICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF Mallotus mollissimus AND Solanum erianthum EXTRACTS

Abstract 

Mallotus mollissimus (M. mollissimus) and Solanum erianthum (S. erianthum) plants have been reported to possess medicinal properties and have been effectively used by indigenous communities. However, the precise compositional and anti-microbial properties of these plants remain unclear. Hence, this study aims to investigate the qualitative phytochemicals and anti-microbial properties of the extract from M. mollissimus and S. erianthum. Anti-microbial activities and phytochemical studies were carried out using crude methanolic extract, chloroform fractions and selected chromatography fractions of M. mollissimus and S. erianthum. Anti-microbial activities targeting Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were performed using the disk diffusion method at 100 mg/mL. M. mollissimus have superior anti-microbial activities as compared to S. erianthum where Streptococcus pneumoniae were inhibited by CE.F3 fraction of M. mollissimus with an average inhibition diameter of 7.0 mm ± 0.48. We qualitatively determined the alkaloids, steroids, and cardiac glycosides in both plant extracts using biochemical assays. Interestingly, flavonoids, terpenoids, and tannins were found in M. mollissimus, which were correlated to the inhibition of Streptococcus pneumoniae. These findings indicate that M. mollissimus and S. erianthum contains large phytochemicals which give rise to anti-microbial effects.

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Page 82 - 89

Salisu Yahaya Mohammed, Musa Bashir, Ibrahim Salihu Isma’il and Mohammed Sani Sule

PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CHROMATE REDUCTASE FROM Lactobacillus fermentum IFO3956 ISOLATED FROM TANNERY EFFLUENT

Abstract 

Chromate reductase was isolated from Lactobacillus fermentum IFO3956, purified and its properties characterized. The bacteria were isolated from chromium-rich tannery effluent, identified using the Gram staining technique and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The purification of the enzyme involved gel filtration chromatography using Sephadex G – 75, ion-exchange chromatography using Dowex 50Wx8 and molecular weight estimation using Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate – PolyAcryamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS - PAGE) analysis. The bacteria were found to be cylindrical rods, positive to Gram’s reaction and showed 92% identity with Lactobacillus fermentum IFO3956 on National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database. The kinetics studies on the enzyme revealed KM of 0.25 mM and Vmax of 10.0 μmol/min. In addition, the enzyme activity was optimum at pH 4.5 and temperature 40oC and was found to be stable in the presence of aprotinin and EDTA with no apparent increase in activity. SDS – PAGE analysis showed two bands revealing a molecular weight of 35 and 70 kDa, suggesting a dimeric protein or an enzyme with two subunits. The results of this study have revealed the properties of a novel chromate reductase that can be employed in the bioremediation of toxic hexavalent chromium in industrial effluents.

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Page 90 - 97

Siti Norazura Jamal and Mohd Firdaus Ismail

A COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF PHYTOCHEMICAL PROFILE, ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF Clidemia capitellata (Bonpl.) D.Don LEAVES EXTRACT

Abstract 

In Malaysia, medicinal plants are widely used daily as a major component of society's restorative therapies. Malaysia's environment is recognized for its wide range of species and a rich source of medicinal herbs. Clidemia capitellata (Bonpl.) D.Don is a shrub belonging to the family of the Melastomataceae locally known as "Senduduk bulu". The current study aims to determine the antibacterial, antioxidant, and chemical profile of Clidemia capitellata (Bonpl.) D.Don leaf extract. Antimicrobial activity was determined by disc diffusion in agar and microdilution in broth (MIC-g/mL). Antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH free radical capture assay, the presence of phytochemical profile was determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), while total phenols (EGA/g) and flavonoids (EQ/g) were quantified using spectrophotometry. The results indicated that the extract of Clidemia capitellata was active against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 62.5 g/mL. The extract was the most effective at sequestering DPPH free radicals (28.60 1.54 %). Total phenolic contents obtained were 80.78 ±0.06 and total flavonoid contents obtained were 64.64±0.10 of the extract, respectively. The phytochemical profile revealed the presence of condensed tannins, terpenes, steroids, and polyphenols but no alkaloids. As a result of the positive results obtained, it is anticipated that the active component of extracts will continue to be extracted and that new chemical-pharmacological assessments will be conducted in the future.

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Page 98 - 105

Takashi Hanagasaki

COSMETIC POTENTIAL OF MARINE ALGAE SUCH AS HIJIKI (Sargassum fusiforme) GROWN IN THE OCEAN OF OKINAWA, JAPAN

Abstract 

The ocean surrounding Okinawa has various species of marine algae that can serve as raw materials for cosmetic products because of its high concentration in phenolic compounds potentially rich in antioxidant activities. Thus, there is a need to create Okinawa’s unique brands for cosmetic products using marine algae grown in the ocean of Okinawa. Some of these marine algae, including the popular seaweed food, Mozuku (Cladosiphon okamuranus Tokida) and Hijiki (Sargassum fusiforme), have been reported to possess high ORAC and tyrosinase inhibition. In food processing of Hijiki, there is a boiling step needed. This resulting Hijiki liquor is wasted, approximately up to 15 tons per year. To take advantage of this residue, the development of cosmetic products derived from this Hijiki liquor should be considered. The resulting Hijiki liquor fractionated by methanol elution using HP20 decreased melanin pigmentation, and no cytotoxicity in a three-dimensional human skin model has been observed. Therefore, there is a high possibility that Hijiki liquor is a great material for cosmetic products or ingredients.

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Page 106 - 109

Wira Eka Putra, Wa Ode Salma, Diana Widiastuti

COMPUTATIONAL INVESTIGATION OF ISORHAMNETIN-3, QUERCETIN-3, AND QUERCETIN FROM Alstonia scholaris AS THE POTENTIAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AGENTS AGAINST COX-2

Abstract 

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays an essential role in the activation of the inflammatory condition. In numerous types of diseases, including inflammatory-related diseases and cancer, the increased expression of COX-2 is related to the poor prognosis. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the potency of Alstonia scholaris bioactive compounds as a COX-2 inhibitor to develop anti-inflammatory agents. Molecular docking simulation was applied to assess the possibility of each compound of A. scholaris as a COX-2 inhibitor. Several bioactive compounds were employed as ligands such as kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol-3-o-β-d-galactopyranoside, quercetin-3-o-β-d-galactopyranoside (hyperoside), and isorhamnetin-3-O-β-d-galactopyranoside. Interestingly, we found three bioactive compounds of A. scholaris that may potentially be inhibitory agents of COX-2, namely isorhamnetin-3, quercetin-3, and quercetin. Moreover, the ligand and protein interaction of these three compounds have particular interaction, such as isorhamnetin-3 and COX-2 protein interaction (Van der Walls, Conventional Hydrogen Bond, Amide-Pi Stacked, Pi-Alkyl, and Pi-Sigma), quercetin-3 and COX-2 protein interaction (Van der Walls, Conventional Hydrogen Bond, Carbon Hydrogen Bond, Pi-Alkyl, and Pi-Sigma), and quercetin and COX-2 protein interaction (Van der Walls, Conventional Hydrogen Bond, Pi-Anion, Pi-Alkyl, and Unfavorable Donor-Donor). Further research in evaluating the biological function of these compounds is needed, especially in in vitro and in vivo experiments.

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