Malay. J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2020) 23 (2)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Ahmad Razi Othman, Nur Suhada Mohd Halimi, Muhammad Shafiq Sharafuddin Mat Zaini, Hassimi Abu Hasan, Nur ‘Izzati Ismail, Siti Rozaimah Sheikh Abdullah
DEGRADATION OF CARBOFURAN USING MALAYSIAN ISOLATE Bacillus sp.
Pesticides are beneficial to the agricultural sector. Carbofuran is one of the most common pesticides used in the agricultural industry. Acting as a neurotransmitter inhibitor through Acetyl Cholinesterase activity, carbofuran can become a harmful substance to animals and humans in uncontrolled situations. Another concern is the persistence of carbofuran in the environment, especially at soil surfaces and in surface water. Thus, remediation of this contaminant is essential to prevent or minimise toxic effects on animals and humans. Green technology is the optimum method to achieve this objective with minimum side effects. Using potential bacteria to remediate the contaminant is proven to reduce the carbofuran toxicity. Local bacteria from a carbofuran contaminated area were isolated and identified as Bacillus sp. isolates S2B, S3C, S4B and S5B with accession numbers MN689686, MN689687, MN689688 and MN689689, respectively. These four bacteria showed significant potential in degrading carbofuran. Isolate S2B showed the fastest degradation rate with 91% degradation within 7 days. Isolates S4B and S5B showed 99% degradation after 14 days of incubation. The results of this study are vital, since current knowledge and data on potential bacterial isolates that can degrade carbofuran in Malaysia are still deficient. Our findings will be beneficial in the future for treating similar contaminants.
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Mohd Ezuan Khayat, Aisamuddin Ardi Zainal Abidin and Fadzlie Wong Rizal Wong
ISOLATION OF BIOACTIVE MILK PROTEINS: A REVIEW
Proteins are one of the major milk components that are diverse in constructions, structures and functional properties. Based on available evidence, individual milk proteins confer a wide range of potential health benefits, thus, attracting interests from both researchers and manufacturers to develop the most optimal methods for their isolation. The aim is to obtain an optimal yield of proteins with the highest purity in the shortest time. Due to the structural diversity and varying protein stability, a specific method for the isolation of each milk protein may be needed. Over the past decades, many techniques have been assessed to isolate milk proteins such as filtration, precipitation and chromatographies. Most of the milk proteins require the incorporation of more than one technique to be successfully isolated. The advent of technology has also improved isolation processes. This review aims to present the current knowledge on the development of methods for isolating milk proteins. The progression of the isolation techniques is expected to obviate problems associated with the underutilisation of milk proteins.
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Alaa Huwaidi, Khairunisa Amira Ahmad, Mahmoud Magdy, Noor Azmi Shaharuddin, Shinya Ikeno and Amir Syahir
IDENTIFICATION OF MYCOSPORINE-LIKE AMINO ACIDS AND EXPRESSION OF 3-DEHYDROQUINATE SYNTHASE GENE IN UV RADIATIONS-INDUCED Deinococcus radiodurans R1
Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are a group of more than 40 metabolites originated from 4-deoxygadusol featuring antioxidants, growth stimulation, and UV protective properties in many microorganisms. In D. radiodurans R1, 3-dehydroquinate synthase (DHQS) gene annotated in chromosome 1 encodes the precursor for all MAAs. In this study, a significant amount of MAAs were identified in D. radiodurans R1 after treatment with a different type of UV radiations, namely; the low energy UVA (360 nm) 6W and 100 W, and high energy UVC (254 nm) 6W at a period of 12 to 48 hours. The total RNA and MAAs were isolated from the UV-treated D. radiodurans R1. RT-qPCR experiment of the DHQS gene resulted in a significant increase of expression. Consequently, specific MAAs were identified using time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). They are mycosporine-taurine, mycosporine-glutamine, mycosporine-glutaminol, mycosporine-glutaminol-glucoside, mycosoprine-glycine, mycosporine-2-glycine, mycosporine-glycine:glutamic acid, shinorine, mycosporine-methylamine:serine, palythine-serine, and palythinol. The results suggested that these compounds play essential roles in D. radiodurans R1 radio-tolerance especially mycosporine-methylamine:serine and palythine-serine. This study can help to further understand the mechanism of radiation resistance in D. radiodurans R1, and its potential to be utilized as protective compound against radiation risk.
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Arpita Chakraborty, Weena Stanley and M. Mukhyaprana Prabhu
INSULIN THERAPY FOR TREATING HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA – A CASE REPORT FROM A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN COASTAL KARNATAKA, INDIA
Severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG), being one of the most common causes of dyslipidemia is hazardous and predisposing factor leading to increased risk of atherosclerosis and acute pancreatitis. Various genetic disorders leading to disordered metabolism of triglycerides result in primary HTG. We are reporting a case of a 49-year-old non-diabetic male with severe HTG with triglyceride levels of 1032 mg/dl. He was treated with insulin infusion therapy along with fenofibrates and saroglitazar for 3 days as a result of which, TG levels came down to 331 mg/dl. During his follow up visit after 6 months, a normal triglyceride level of 105 mg/dl was found. This implies that aggressive treatment and monitoring are required in such patients to ensure an appropriate and optimal therapeutic response and to prevent the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease in the future.
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Asha Devi Pallujam, Siti Afiqah Zali, Siti Nur Hazwani Oslan, Abu Bakar Salleh and Siti Nurbaya Oslan
CRITICAL PHYSICAL PARAMETERS FOR OPTIMUM RECOMBINANT PROTEIN PRODUCTION IN YEAST SYSTEMS
Yeasts become the most preferred expression system for the production of recombinant proteins which play an important role in the development of biopharmaceutical products, antibodies for disease treatment, and enzymes for the food industries. The ability to grow in simple media, and ease of genetic manipulation with the benefits of typical eukaryotic expression which include protein processing, folding, and post-translational modifications, have pushed them as one of the emerging hosts for recombinant protein production. Furthermore, yeasts are additionally quicker, easy to use, and cost-effective with high yield production in comparison to higher expression hosts. The effective productivity of the recombinant proteins is also influenced by the external parameters. This paper reviews different optimization methods of the recombinant protein production for several factors such as pH, temperature, media, agitation rate, inducer, inoculum size and induction time using one factor at a time (OFAT), Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). This review highlights the current studies regarding the optimization of the recombinant proteins expressed in three different yeasts namely; Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Komagataella phaffii and Yarrowia lipolytica. These are the critical parameters that can be used to optimize the recombinant protein in yeast systems. The purification methods used to purify the proteins are also discussed for each system.
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Chai Siew Ying, Nur Fathiah Tahir, Nur Syazana Abu Bakar, Teo Chee How, Nur Fatihah Mohd Yusoff, Nadiya Akmal Baharum and Noor Baity Saidi
GENOME-WIDE IDENTIFICATION AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF BANANA RBOH GENES IN RESPONSE TO Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Tropical Race 4
Respiratory burst oxidase homologs (RBOH) is the key enzyme responsible for the production of reactive oxygen species which act as important signal during plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. However, RBOH homologs have not been characterized in banana. In this study, we have identified twelve Rboh genes distributed on eight chromosomes of Musa acuminata subsp. malaccensis (DH Pahang) through a genome-wide analysis. MaRbohs exist as sibling paralogs with variable exon-intron structures and highly conserved functional domains. Phylogenetic analysis clustered MaRBOH into four distinct subgroups (I, II, III and IV). The expression of MaRbohs following 24 hours of inoculation with Fusarium oxysporium f. sp. cubense Tropical Race 4 revealed diverse patterns in root tissues. MaRbohH1 and MaRbohA2 were strongly upregulated and downregulated, respectively in response to the root-dip inoculation. This is the first report on the genome-wide characterization of Rboh genes from banana and their expression in response to the fungal pathogen TR4. This research provides a basis for the exploration of the role of NADPH oxidase in banana defence against the root pathogen.
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Daoudi Sofiane, Adli Djallal Eddine, Benaissa Tahar and Ali Othman Adil
SYNTHESIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF NEW QUATERNARY AMMONIUM SALTS BEARING 1,2,4-TRIAZOLE MOIETIES DERIVED FROM THREE NATURAL AMINO ACIDS
Secondary quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) derived from three natural amino acids (L-Leucine, L-Phenylalanine and L-Methionine) bearing 1,2,4-triazole and acetic acid moieties were synthesized and characterized by IR, 1H and 13C NMR. The antimicrobial properties of the synthesized compounds were screened for their preliminary in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity against a panel of standard strains of pathogenic microorganisms including three gram-positive bacteria, three gram-negative bacteria, and two registered yeast species. The results obtained from the antimicrobial activity showed that all the synthesized compounds displayed varying degrees of inhibition against the tested microorganisms. It was concluded that the compounds 6c possess good activity against Gram-positive bacteria compound 6b showed moderate activity, compounds 6(a-c) displayed remarkable and significant anti-yeast activities.
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Hau Eng Huan, Zamzahaila Mohd Zin, Noor Azmi Shaharuddin, Amirrudin Ahmad and Mohd Khairi Zainol
EFFECT OF CRUDE AND PURIFIED FISH PROTEIN HYDROLYSATE FROM YELLOWSTRIPE SCAD (Selaroides leptolepis) IN REDUCING OIL UPTAKE IN DEEP FRIED BATTERED SQUID
Frying is one of the oldest cooking methods to prepare desirable food. Fat is a naturally palatable par excellence when hot frying fat replaces water loss, exerting a tenderizing effect on the crust for flavour, crispness and pleasant taste. However, fried products are commonly related to chronic coronary health diseases. Thus, the desire to find a way to produce healthy, yet delicious food is crucial. This study aimed to determine the effect of crude and purified protein hydrolysate incorporated in batter in deep-fried seafood products. The purified protein hydrolysate A and B were obtained at different retention times. The viscosity of batter and batter pick up were found to be insignificantly different among the protein hydrolysate. Purified protein hydrolysate A and B had significantly lower oil uptake than crude protein hydrolysate. In contrast, water retention was seen highest in purified protein hydrolysate A followed by purified protein hydrolysate B and crude protein, (59%, 57% and 35%) respectively. The crust formed by incorporating crude protein had a combination of a few large pores and many small pores. There were a few large pores but a very small number of small pores in the crust incorporated purified protein hydrolysate A, while purified protein hydrolysate B incorporation resulted in a higher number of small pores.
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Ibrahim I. Hussein, Abdulrasheed Mansur, Jabir Hamza, Luka Ayuba and Nelson H. Gideon
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF Aloe vera GEL AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS ON SOME BACTERIAL INFECTIOUS AGENTS OF CLINICAL ORIGIN
The study examined the antibacterial activity of Aloe vera gel and ethanolic extract against some infectious bacterial agents (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus) of clinical origin. This is a bid to further exploit herbal plants for innovative drugs towards relieving the threat of microbial antibiotic resistance and advancing in herbal medicine. The ethanolic extract obtained by ethanol extraction and the Aloe gel removed from the fleshy stem of Aloe plant was applied for the preparation of various standards, and subsequent impregnation onto sterile circular disc. Afterward, the pure cultures obtained from microbiological screening of bacterial isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility test by the disc diffusion method. The findings revealed P. aeruginosa and E. coli portrays significant susceptibility to the gel and ethanolic extract of Aloe vera across all the standards in a dose-dependent pattern. However, the Aloe gel depicted higher antibacterial efficacy than the ethanolic extract due to certain reasonable factors. The antibacterial activity of these Aloe extracts was attributed to the combined presence and actions of the assorted bioactive, nutritional and phytochemicals of the Aloe plant. On the contrary, S. aureus showed complete resistance to both Aloe extracts with no zones of inhibitions recorded even after prolonged incubation. This suggested S. aureus as a resistant strain admissibly owing to the clinical origin of these isolates. This study further established Aloe vera as a herbal antibacterial agent that could be exhaustively tapped for pharmaceutical productions specifically a new line of potent drugs to complement orthodox medicine.
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Ismail Ahmad, Budu Budu, Mochammad Hatta, Andi Ihsan, Sitti Rahmatiah, Nasrullah Nasrullah, Sumira Laudo, Nureni Djalil, Muhammad Basri and Ilhamsyah Muin
ANALYSIS OF mRNA EXPRESSION OF PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR GAMMA COACTIVATOR 1-ALPHA (PGC-1α) GENE AND THE PHYSICAL FITNESS LEVELS (VO2max) IN THE CANDIDATES FOR INDONESIAN HAJJ HEALTH OFFICERS
Indonesian Hajj Health Officers (PKHI) are health officers instructed by the Minister of Health of the Republic of Indonesia to provide health services, development, and protection to Hajj pilgrims during the Hajj pilgrimage implementation, hence, a healthy physical condition in PKHI becomes one of the primary keys of success in providing health services. This study aimed at knowing the role of PGC-1α gene expression in increasing the physical fitness levels (VO2max) of the PKHI candidates. The data were collected from 30 subjects of PKHI consisting of 17 males and 13 females. The assessment of PGC-1α gene expression using mRNA and RT-PCR was done in the biomedical-biomolecular laboratory of Hasanuddin University Medical Research Center (HUM-RC), Makassar, and the measurement of VO2max of three 3 times using the Multistage Fitness Test (MFT) technique with Bleep Test method, namely before and after 1600 meter running workout with a duration of 20-30 minutes per session, 3 times a week with a frequency of 16 times. The result showed that the average scores of PGC-1α gene expression after physical exercise in males and females were (7.45±2.17 ΔΔCT) and (5.46±2.87 ΔΔCT) respectively. They were higher than the average scores before physical exercises in males and females, namely (3.46±0.72 ΔΔCT) and (3.38±0.57 ΔΔCT) respectively with the statistical significance level or p-value of less than 0.001. Further, the average scores of VO2max in males and females after physical exercises were 38.65±1.69 ml/kg/min and 28.98±1.30 ml/kg/min respectively, and they were better than average scores before physical exercises, namely 33.78±1.29 ml/kg/min and 24.82±0.37 ml/kg/min respectively (p-value <0.001). It concludes that mRNA expression of PGC-1α gene increases the level of physical fitness (VO2max) in PKHI candidates.
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K. Ponnazhagan, Ursula Sampson, N. Muninathan and J. Sivakumar
EFFECT OF VITAMIN D AND COMBINATION WITH LIV-52 ON ANTIOXIDANT LEVELS IN CARBON TETRACHLORIDE (CCL4) INDUCED LIVER DISEASE IN WISTAR RATS
Liver is the principal organ for maintaining the body’s internal environment and metabolizes various compounds that produce free radicals. However, the antioxidant system is crucial for human health and survival to maintain the redox homeostasis in the liver. When the excessive ROS is generated in the tissue, the homeostasis will be disturbed, resulting in oxidative stress, which plays a critical role in liver diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate both enzymatic and non- enzymatic antioxidant activity of Vitamin D and combination with Liv-52 on Carbon tetrachloride-induced liver disease. Male Albino Wistar rats were used in this study. Liver disease was induced in rats by Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) at the dose of 1ml mixed with 50% of olive oil and administered into experimental animals twice a week for five weeks after conformation of liver disease treated with Vitamin D and Liv-52 for 5 weeks. The levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were significantly increased in vitamin D and Liv-52 treated animals when compared with liver disease animals. Moreover, the levels of Vitamin D and Liv-52 a good indicator of restoring the liver architecture, were also reversed in the damage after treatment. We conclude that a combination of Vitamin D and Liv-52 is capable of restoring the liver architecture and can also increase the antioxidants in liver disease rats.
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Le Pham Tan Quoc
EVALUATION OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SPRAY DRIED PINEAPPLE (Ananas comosus Merr.) POWDER PRODUCED WITH GUM ARABIC AS CARRIER AGENT
The pineapple juice contains many bioactive compounds and they are quite sensitive to heat, light and oxygen. There are many methods to maintain these compounds, especially spray drying technology with gum arabic (GA) as a carrier agent. However, the physico-chemical properties of raw material and products should be determined to enhance storage stability. The received result showed that the pineapple juice was spray-dried with 16% gum arabic (w/w) at drying air temperature of 160°C, output temperature of 70°C, airflow rate of 70 m3/h, feed flow rate of 750 mL/h and pressure of 4 bar. In addition, the current study also evaluated the changes in physico-chemical properties of gum arabic before and after the spray drying process including encapsulation yield, total polyphenol content (TPC), antioxidant activity (AA), moisture, bulk density, flowability, wettability, hygroscopicity, water solubility index (WSI), color parameters, structure and distribution of particles. In conclusion, GA has a significant influence on physico-chemical properties of powder produced by spray-drying method. While the values of moisture, bulk density, wettability and a* of powder product are lower than those of initial material, the opposite is true for the values of TPC, AA, hygroscopicity and WSI. It is noticeable that the values of flowability, L* and b* are relatively equally represented in both the initial material and powder product. In addition, the product has many various small sizes and its structure was smooth and spherical.
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N. Muninathan and Ursula Sampson
A STUDY OF BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTIGEN RECOGNIZED BY MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY CAMA3C8 AGAINST HUMAN BREAST CANCER CELL LINE
Biochemical studies have shown structural alterations in carbohydrates present on cell membrane constituents like glycolipids, glycoprotein and cell secretary products accompanying neoplastic transformation. Many of the monoclonal antibodies raised against cancer cells have been shown to react with these alternated carbohydrates. Therefore, these monoclonal antibodies are useful for the immunohistochemical diagnosis of cancer in a specific organ. In the present study, the biochemical characterization of the antigen recognized by monoclonal antibody CAMA3C8 against human breast cancer cell line was investigated. The study was conducted at Meenakshi Medical College Hospital and Research Institute, Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu, India. The immunohistochemical method was used to determine whether the antigenic determinant is a carbohydrate moiety or not. This is a combination of an avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method and acetylation technique. There was no positive reaction product for CAMA3C8 was found in the acetylated CAMA cells. The positive reaction reappeared in deacetylated cells similar to the peroxidase staining. This technique was used to confirm that monoclonal antibody CAMA3C8 is specific for an epitope on the carbohydrate moiety of the antigenic molecule. We conclude that the CAMA3C8 recognizes an antigen that is highly glycated with O-linked carbohydrate moiety with N-terminal neuraminic acid in breast cancer cell line.
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Raihan Farhana Zainudin, Mardiah Zainal Abidin, Aliana Najwa Hamsah Zollappi, Nor Liana Aqilah Mohd Yatim, Norain Mohd Tamsir, Muhajir Hamid and Mohd Ezuan Khayat
ENHANCEMENT OF ANTI-ADVANCE GLYCATION END PRODUCT FORMATION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SALAK PEEL EXTRACTS USING BETAINE-BASED DEEP EUTECTIC SOLVENTS
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are harmful compounds produced through a non-enzymatic-glycation between proteins and sugars in the bloodstreams. Their accumulation triggers the production of reactive oxygen species which disturbs the functions of the cells and implicates in many diseases. In this study, we compared the anti-AGE and antioxidant properties of salak fruit peels extracted using four betaine-based deep eutectic solvents (DES) and a conventional solvent (aqueous ethanol). Betaine: sorbitol were found to be the most effective solvent for extracting polyphenols from salak peels while for flavonoid extraction, both betaine:sorbitol and betaine:propylene glycol exhibited the highest efficiency. The antioxidant activity of betaine:sorbitol extract was also found to be highest when assayed using FRAP assay while in another assay (DDPH assay), the antioxidant activity of betaine:citric acid:water extract was found to be the best. As for anti-AGEs property, the highest activity was found in betaine:sorbitol, betaine:glycerin and betaine:propylene glycol extracts. The flavonoids of the extracts showed high correlations with the anti-AGEs activities. However, they were found to be correlated only with the antioxidant activity obtained from FRAP assay but not from DPPH assay. It can be concluded from this study that the utilization of DES could yield better bio-activities of salak peel extracts.
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Rashidah Abd Halim, Nor'Aishah Hasan and Kogeethavani Ramachandran
BIOCONTROL AND PLANT GROWTH PROMOTION IN RICE PLANT (Oryza sativa L.) BY ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIA
Endophytic bacteria are bacteria that have an intimate relationship with their host without inducing any pathogenic symptom. It has the ability to protect their host against phytopathogens and promote plant growth. The present study was designed to isolate and characterize bacterial endophytes from the root and stem of rice plants for their potential as biocontrol agents against rice bacterial leaf blight disease (Xanthomonas oryzae pv Oryzae (Xoo)) and plant growth-promoting (PGP) traits. A total of two hundred and twelve endophytic bacteria were successfully isolated from surface-sterilized healthy rice samples collected from different rice cultivation fields across Peninsular Malaysia. Seventeen isolates (7.3%) were found to inhibit the growth of Xoo by using disc diffusion assay. In vitro test demonstrated the ability of 19 (8.15%) strain to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 9 (3.86%) fixed nitrogen, 30 (12.86%) to produce phosphate solubilization and 16 (6.87%) to produce siderophores. Molecular identification by 16S rRNA amplification successfully identified the potential endophytic bacteria as Enterobacter sp., Geobacillus thermoparaffinivorans, Gamma proteobacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescent, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus. Under greenhouse conditions, high root and shoot length were recorded in rice inoculated with Bacillus subtilis with 69.87±3.56 cm and 29.73±1.55 cm respectively. Geobacillus thermoparaffinivorans exhibited the highest disease suppressing activity against Xoo and grain yield per panicle (34.23±7.79 g) on rice. In the light of these findings, Geobacillus thermoparaffinivorans may be considered as a source of biocontrol agent and plant growth promoter to boost rice productivity.
Page 123 - 126
Sarab D. AL- Shamaa
EXTRACTION OF KERATIN FROM CHICKEN FEATHER AND ITS ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY
Enormous quantities of chicken are consumed every year that produce an enormous number of feathers as waste material, which is considered an environmental problem. The high content of keratin in feathers makes it a suitable source of protein. In this study, white chicken feathers 50g were collected, washed, dried, solubilized in sodium hydroxide, and protein precipitated with hydrochloric acid to extract crude keratin. The extracted protein was lyophilized, and its protein nature was screened by an infrared spectroscopy technique. Results of this research revealed different transmission bands near 1653 cm-1, 1541 cm-1, 1508 cm-1, 1458 cm-1, 1130 cm-1, 1038 cm-1, 1011 cm-1, 472 cm-1, 418 cm-1. These transmission bands confirmed the protein nature of extracted material, band at 1653 cm-1 attributed to C=O stretching amide I that occurred in the 1700- 1600 cm-1 while band near 1541 cm-1 attributed to amid II which occur in the 1580- 1480 cm-1 rang, weak bands between 1130 cm-1 and 1011 cm-1 is associated with amid III. In addition, the results of this research showed that extracted keratin had antibacterial effects against some gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial isolates such as Enterobacter sakazaki, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, while there was no effect upon Listeria monocytogenes, Micrococcus. These results indicate that extracted keratin had an antimicrobial property and may be utilized for other purposes, besides big quantities of harmful feathers had been converted to a benefit substance that had many industrial uses.
Page 127 - 134
Urrmila Ranee Mareshvaran, Leena Murugan, Shamala Salvamani, Mridula Sharma, Patrick Nwabueze Okechukwu and Baskaran Gunasekaran
IN VITRO INHIBITORY POTENTIAL OF Amaranthus viridis AGAINST ALPHA-AMYLASE FOR DIABETES AND THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY
The occurrence of diabetes mellitus is ever-increasing worldwide, affecting the younger generation. In the current study, insulin and conventional medication have shown to cause adverse side effects. Hence, natural and safe approaches should be explored to prevent further progression of diabetes. Phenolic acid and flavonoid are natural phytochemicals that have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that are associated with specific anti-diabetic agents. Amaranthus viridis is a plant that has been utilized for medicinal purposes for its beneficial properties since prehistoric times. Thus, this study aims to investigate the antidiabetic effects of A. viridis leaf extract via in vitro and antioxidant assay. The in vitro assay of A.viridis was assessed by measuring its ability to inhibit diabetic linked enzyme α‐amylase. The antioxidant properties were measured using a colorimetric assay. The α-amylase inhibition percentage was exhibited as dichloromethane>hexane> water>methanol. DCM has exhibited the lowest IC50 value of 18.08μg/ml. As for the antioxidant assay, total phenolic content showed methanol extract of A.viridis had the highest amount of phenolic acid, 68.54mg gallic acid(GAE)/g. Besides, total flavonoid content showed methanol extract of A.viridis had the highest amount of flavonoid content that is 185.4 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g. Furthermore, free radical scavenging activity showed the methanolic extract of A.viridis has the highest free radical scavenging potential. This study shows that A.viridis leaf extract exhibits significant a-amylase inhibitory activities and antioxidant properties that could be used to fight against the oxidative-stress related diseases.
Page 135 - 141
Khadijah Nabilah Mohd Zahri, Azham Zulkharnain and Siti Aqlima Ahmad
TOXICITY OF REUSED COOKING OIL: A REVIEW
Repeated heated cooking oil has been a regular practice to save cost and people believe that vegetable oil was the best choice of cooking oil since it has functional and nutritional benefits to consumers such as high vitamin and antioxidant content. However, the consumption of reused vegetable oil could give harmful effect on body cells. Repeatedly heated vegetable oil can produce other harmful compounds or by-products with the potential risk to human body systems, such as volatile compound (alcohol, aldehyde, and ketone), polar compound (monoacylglyceride, diacylglyceride, and glycerol), non-polar compound (trans-fatty acids) and toxic compound (acrylamide). These molecules have resulted from several reaction processes from heating including the process of hydrolysis, oxidation (oxidative decomposition, oxidative haemolytic cleavage, and millard reaction), cyclisation, isomerisation and polymerisation of oil. The formation of free radicals can cause oxidative stress and accelerate degradation of lipids. In addition, high temperature to the cooking oil could alter the antioxidant molecule function. Plus, fried food from reused cooking oil is able to change the nutritional content in food itself; for example, vitamins (E, A, B and C) and mineral component. This activity can lead to increase blood pressure, total cholesterol low-density lipoprotein (LDL), saturated fatty acid and eventually cause atherosclerosis, hypertension, neurodegenerative and even cancer. This review studies the adverse effect of repeated heated vegetable oil intake towards humans and aims at increasing the awareness of the community around the world.
Page 142 - 146
Wira Eka Putra, Wa Ode Salma, Diana Widiastuti and Muhammad Kismurtono
IN SILICO SCREENING OF PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR ACTIVATED RECEPTOR GAMMA (PPARG)-AGONIST FROM Eugenia jambolana BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS AS POTENTIAL ANTI-DIABETIC AGENT
Diabetes mellitus still become a serious health problem globally. The prevalence of this incidence has become increasing over the years. Current treatment has been applied, however, the new strategy is still needed to explore. Thus, in order to combat diabetes mellitus, we aimed to evaluate the potential activity of compounds from Eugenia jambolana stem bark as PPARG-agonist agents. In silico screening was performed to assess the possible and potential compounds as anti-diabetic agents. Based on our findings, we noted there are three potential compounds as PPARG-agonist, namely ellagic acid, myricetin, and friedelin. These compounds were selected based on the binding affinity scores and interaction patterns against the target protein. In detail, the ligand-protein interaction of these three compounds are ellagic acid - PPARG interaction (Van der Waals, Conventional Hydrogen Bond, Pi-Anion, and Pi-Alkyl); myricetin - PPARG interaction (Van der Waals, Conventional Hydrogen Bond, Pi-Sulfur, and Pi-Alkyl); and friedelin - PPARG interaction (Van der Waals and Alkyl/ Pi-Alkyl). From this finding, extensive research is needed to evaluate the biological function of these ligands as an anti-diabetic agent.