August & December 2017
Malay. J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2017) 20 (2-3)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Zhuang Mian Bo, Gek Mui Tan, Chhabra-Singh Saranpal, Kee Peng Ng, Pei Pei Chong, Crystale Siew Ying Lim
NOVEL Candida albicans MULTILOCUS SEQUENCE TYPING (MLST) STRAINS AND POTENTIAL CANDIDA SPECIES HYBRIDIZATION IN BLOOD ISOLATES OF CANDIDEMIA PATIENTS IN MALAYSIA
In view of the high mortality and morbidity rates due to candidemia, molecular typing has been used to characterize pathogenic strains of Candida albicans. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic profile of C. albicans blood isolates via multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Genomic DNA of 10 C. albicans clinical isolates from 10 non-repetitive blood culture samples from candidemia patients from Universiti Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) was extracted, after which MLST was carried out according to the C. albicans MLST database protocols. Three sequence types (STs) were found to be novel to the MLST database. In addition, inconsistencies of allele identities among the housekeeping genes for the remaining seven clinical isolates were found. Therefore, we hypothesized that in these isolates, hybridization occurred between C. albicans and two non-albicans species: C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis. This is the first report of three novel C. albicans MLST STs from bloodstream infections insofar found only in a Malaysian cohort. To the best of our knowledge, this is also the first reported indication of possible C. albicans-C. parapsilosis and C. albicans-C. orthopsilosis species hybridization.
Muhammad Farhan, Neelum Abbasi, Fatima Riaz, Darakshan Jabeen Haleem
CITALOPRAM - ANTIDEPRESSANT AND ANXIOLYTIC PROFILE OF SELECTIVE SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITOR IN RATS
Serotonin is the well-known neurotransmitter extensively distributed in the CNS. Mainly 5-HT and its related drugs are used in psychiatry and neurology. Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were initially introduced as antidepressants, and their potential as anxiolytic has been observed in the treatment of social phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. SSRIs are the latest generated antidepressants having the selective mechanism of action towards 5-Hydroxytryptamine (Serotonin; 5-HT) without affecting any other unwanted effects on other neurotransmitters. The present study was designed to investigate the behavioral effects of oral citalopram (CTP) administration at the dose of 100 mg/kg/day in the rats produced on acute as well as on repeated administration by using different behavioral models, in familiar as well as in novel environment. Male rats were divided into two groups. Animals of CTP group were administrated with CTP orally while water was administrated in controls. Food intake, growth rate and activity in an open field and light/dark transition box were monitored on next day of 1st and 7th administration. Locomotive effects of the treatment were analyzed in activity box on next day of each and every administration. Results from the present study revealed the hypophagic and decreased in body weight effects of the citalopram administration while locomotors activity in open field as well as in activity box were increased significantly after the repeated administrations. Anxiolytic like behavior were monitored on repeated administration but not on single administration. These information support clinical discoveries that citalopram is a powerful, very much endured SSRI with antidepressant-like activity.
Nurhana Nadia Ramlan, Azzreena Mohamad Azzeme, Khairul Naim Md Padzil, Maziah Mahmood
INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTION SOLVENTS ON PHYTOCHEMICAL CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY EXTRACTED FROM PULP AND FLOWER OF DESSERT AND COOKING BANANAS
Solubility of antioxidant compounds depends on the type of extraction solvent used. Here, we report total phytochemical content and antioxidant activities of methanolic, ethanolic and distilled water extracts of banana pulp and flower from different banana cultivars. Rastali (AAB) and Berangan (AAA) belong to a dessert banana group, while Tanduk (AAB), Nipah (BBB) and Awak (ABB) belong to a cooking banana group. The total antioxidant activities were analyzed using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assays. The total of phenolics (TPC), flavonoids (TFC) and β-carotene (TBC) were also determined. The DPPH assay showed the methanolic extract of ripe dessert banana pulps, Rastali and Berangan contained the highest antioxidant activities, 91% and 74.15%, respectively. A similar trend was observed from FRAP assay, which showed the methanolic extract of ripe Rastali and Berangan pulps contained the highest antioxidant activities, 1225.52±6.51 µM Fe(II)/g and 1090.42±20.66 µM Fe(II)/g, respectively. The highest TPC and TFC were found in the methanolic extract of Berangan flower (55.91±1.25 mg GAE/g FW) and ripe Berangan pulp (1.51±0.05 mg RE/g FW), respectively. The ripe Berangan pulp and Awak flower showed the highest TBC (6.685±0.11 µg/g FW and 6.374±0.26 µg/FW, respectively). Overall, methanolic extract showed the best capacity to extract the highest antioxidant compounds from dessert bananas, while ethanolic extract has the best ability to extract antioxidant compounds from cooking banana. Thus, respective solvents can be used to extract natural antioxidant compounds from different banana cultivars for human consumption and industrial use.
Mei Li Khong and Jung Shan Hwang
IDENTIFICATION OF VENOME-FILLED ORGANELLES IN Aurelia aurita
Aurelia aurita is a scyphozoan known for its variable stinging potency and contains nematocysts, the explosive stinging organelles that are characteristics of all cnidarians. Nonetheless, evolutionary forces brought about staggering diversity of toxins and its delivery system. Hence, the primary objective of this study is to identify and characterise venom-filled organelles to make feasible evolutionary studies within the phylum Cnidaria. Nematocysts of A. aurita were examined by light microscopy. Five types of nematocysts were identified and suggested to function as penetrants, entanglers or adherents during prey capture and defence in basis of its morphological characteristics and dynamic distribution throughout the organism.
Jaslyn Chong Chai Lin, Ling Suk Jiun, Adelina Chia Yoke Yin
TWO-DIMENSIONAL QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP (2D-QSAR) ANALYSIS ON ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA (ERα) AND BETA (ERβ) AGONISTS
Estrogen receptor has 2 subtypes – ERα and ERβ and both are important in human health via ER-mediated actions. To correlate the structural characteristics of ER agonists and their exhibited estrogenic activities, validated 2D-QSAR models were developed for ERα (r2=0.7311, q2=0.6772, r2(pred) = 0.7047) and ERβ (r2 = 0.7239, q2 = 0.6573, r2(pred)= 0.6133). Each model is associated with ten descriptors and showed the same pair of properties with the highest positive (Molecular_FractionalPolarSurfaceArea) and negative (JX) effect on the agonistic activity for both subtypes. Using the models, predicted EC50 of three potential agonists corresponding with the docking analysis by Ling et al. (2017) showed a consistent trend for ERα but otherwise for ERβ, suggesting further investigations.