Malay. J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2022) 25 (3)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page 1- 8
Ikrimatul Hasnah, Wira Eka Putra, Sustiprijatno, Arief Hidayatullah, Dahlia Normala, Nurrasilfa, Rani Dwi Lestari, Siti Nurazizah, Yusniar Zurroh Asfiniya, Diana Widiastuti, Hendra Susanto, Muhammad Fikri Heikal, Hary Isnanto
IN SILICO STUDY REVEALED THE ANTI-VIRAL POTENCY OF Allium cepa BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS INHIBIT M-PRO SARS-COV-2 PROTEIN
A zoonotic disease called COVID-19 was initially spread from animals to people. SARS-CoV-2, as opposed to SARS, was a pandemic that resulted in about 274,676,729 cases globally. Numerous studies have looked into potential novel treatments for COVID-19 infection. In this study, 16 phytochemicals from Allium cepa L. were examined in silico for their potential to bind to the primary protease of COVID-19 (PDB ID: 6LU7). Lipinski's rules are used to choose the ligands. Protein protease's (Mpro) Cys-145 and His-41 are its active sites. The chosen ligands are examined using molecular docking with PyRx and Vina Wizard and 2D visualization with LigPlot+. Selected ligands' binding energy value will be contrasted with hydroxychloroquine as a control. According to the results, the compounds luteolin (CID: 5280445), isorhamnetin (CID: 5281654), and apigenin (CID: 5280443), which had binding energies of 7.4, 7.2, and -7 kcal/mol, respectively, become potential COVID-19 inhibitors. These substances have higher binding energies than the control, hydroxychloroquine (CID: 3652), which has a lower binding energy (-6 kcal/mol). Due to its important pharmacokinetic features, luteolin demonstrated the best binding efficacy to Mpro, enabling the development of new drugs.
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Kingsley Ikechukwu Ijoma, Vincent Ishmael Egbulefu Ajiwe, Juliana Onyema Ndubuisi
EVIDENCE-BASED PREFERENTIAL IN VITRO ANTISICKLING MECHANISM OF THREE NATIVE NIGERIAN PLANTS USED IN THE MANAGEMENT OF SICKLE CELL DISEASE
Sickle cell anemia is a hereditary genetic disease caused by the substitution of glutamic acid by valine at beta six (β-6) position of the hemoglobin; the clinical implication is that the erythrocyte contains the hemoglobin polymerizes, leading to severe clinical consequences. Therefore, we investigated the antisickling mechanism of Ficus thonningii (FTH), Jatropha tanjorensis (JTR) and Justicia carnae (JCN) native to Southeast Nigeria used in the management of sickle cell disease. The experiment was designed to include erythrocyte fragility, erythrocyte reversibility and polymerization inhibition mechanisms. The results obtained were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey Posthoc test. From the results of the erythrocyte fragility test, it was observed that at 0.35% saline concentration, FTH, JTR and JCN extracts reduced hemolysis to 26.548±0.056%, 18.055±0.064%, and 20.217±0.035% respectively while hydroxyurea (control drug) reduced hemolysis to 14.459±0.040%. In the presence of the control, the percentage number of sickle cells was 91.001±0.170% whereas, hydroxyurea was 30.414±0.162% while, extracts of FTH, JTR and JCN reduced sickling to 49.818±0.082%, 41.001±0.413% and 33.957±0.062% respectively. Also, the results of the polymerization inhibition analysis showed that extracts of FTH, JTR and JCN had relative percentage polymerization inhibition of 76.888±0.042%, 48.723±0.113% and 75.447±0.063%, respectively, in comparison to hydroxyurea which inhibited sickle erythrocyte polymerization by 70.903±0.150%. Our findings suggest the preferential but variable antisickling mechanism of the studied extracts; hence, the leaves of the assayed plants contain potential antisickling phytochemicals and should be explored further for their antisickling benefits.
Nurul Syafika Muslimin, Farida Zuraina Mohd Yusof, Nur Qursyna Boll Kassim, Khalilah Abdul Khalil
MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH PLANT ROT DISEASE OF SOURSOP (Annona muricata) IN SERI MENANTI, NEGERI SEMBILAN
Soursop (Annona muricata) is renowned for its ethnomedicinal uses, leading to the increasing demand for this fruit. Soursop rot disease has become one of the major constraints in soursop fruit production in Peninsular Malaysia, especially for the smaller commercial producer, much likely due to the indefinite identity of pathogens associated with the disease. As such, this study was designed as a preliminary identification of the fungal species that contribute towards soursop rot diseases in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia using the ITS primer. The infected soursop leaves and soil samples were collected from a farm located in Seri Menanti, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Cultivation was done on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) medium. Twenty-five (25) isolates were collected, and six (6) different species of fungi were discovered through molecular identification. They were suggested to have different roles and contributions in various types of crops worldwide, namely the Gongronella butleri, Fusarium beomiforme, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Hypocreals sp., Neopestalotiopsis sp. and Colletotrichum siamense.
Puteri Nur Farahin, Normah Haron, Deny Susanti, and Noor Hasniza Md Zin
Anacardium occidentale Linn. LEAVES AND ITS MEDICINAL PROPERTIES
Anacardium occidentale leaves, known as cashew leaves or Pucuk Gajus in Malay, is a member of the Anacardiaceae family that is widely grown in tropical countries such as Malaysia, India and Brazil. It had been traditionally used for treating many health problems as it contained many beneficial phytochemical compositions such as polyphenols, flavonoids, tannin, vitamin C and carotenoids. Its extract possesses antidiabetic activity, which prevents a sudden rise in postprandial blood glucose level by inhibiting α-amylase to slow down the breakdown of long-chain carbohydrates to glucose. It also controls the blood glucose level by inhibiting dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), which prevents the rapid degradation of incretin and thus stimulates insulin secretion. Besides, it acts as an antioxidant agent to protect against lipid peroxidation and scavenge radicals. It showed antimicrobial properties by inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria, including Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, and Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia, and fungi which are Aspergillus niger, Penicillium digitatum and Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes. Furthermore, it exhibited an antiulcerogenic effect by preventing gastric lesions and anti-inflammatory properties, which interrupt the inflammation process by controlling cytokines secretion in macrophage lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cells. Therefore, A. occidentale may potentially be contributed to the treatment of various diseases, but continuous study is needed to determine further the bioactive compounds that are responsible for the mechanism of action.
Semaa A. Shaban, Hanan Mohammed Saied, Safa Sadeq Fayez, Ahemd AbdulJabbar Suleiman
STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT miRNA ON GENE EXPRESSION PROFILE DURING Mycobacterium tuberculosis INFECTION USING BIOINFORMATICS TOOLS
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most common diseases worldwide. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the main causal agent of tuberculosis. Changes in gene expression are very important for normal biological functions. Changes in gene expression have adverse effects and cause many diseases. Tb is one of them. Gene expression is controlled by many small noncoding miRNAs. In this study, we identified relationships between miRNAs and differentially expressed genes in tuberculosis by using bioinformatics tools. Dataset GSE51029 was downloaded from the GEO database to check for expression. DEGs in the microarray dataset were identified by a bioinformatics tool, namely GEO2R. Enrichment analysis of DEGs was done through DAVID. The PPI network was constructed through the Cytoscape of the DEGs. Hub-genes were identified by using cyto-Hubba extracted from the PPI network. The gene’s interaction network of miRNA-hub was constructed to evaluate the miRNAs interacting with hub genes. A total of 285 DEGs were identified. Of those, 82 genes were downregulated and 202 genes were upregulated. Enrichment analysis of DEGs showed their involvement in cell surface receptors, regulation of proteins, signaling pathways, cytoplasmic endoplasmic reticulum, endoplasmic, nuclear membrane, transcription coactivator activity, mRNA binding, protein kinase binding, and deacetylase binding. KEGG analysis presented that identified DEGs were involved in signaling pathways and other diseases. The ten genes closely related to miRNA have also been identified. This study shows that identified DEGs, pathways, and miRNAs that closely interact with hub genes are involved in causing tuberculosis. Their clinical evaluation at an early stage may provide important targets for the treatment of tuberculosis.
Siti Norazura Jamal, Dynna Ayun Donny and Dhilia Udie Lamasudina
THE INFLUENCE OF ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AGAINST RICE PATHOGENS FROM Bactronophorus thoracites (SHIPWORM) PROTEIN HYDROLYSATE
The outbreak of leaf blight disease in Malaysia affects the sustainability of rice production in supporting the growing population. Bactronophorus thoracites is a wood-boring shipworm with high protein and possesses numerous bioactive compounds. The present study investigated the effects of enzymatic hydrolysis for generating molluscs protein hydrolysates (MPH) from B. thoracites and their efficacy against rice pathogens. The inhibition percentage against rice pathogens was significantly (p<0.05) increased when enzyme concentration was increased from 1.75% to 2.05% (w/v) but slightly decreased at a concentration exceeding 2.35%. The inhibition percentage was also found to increase when the temperature increased to 55°C. However, the hydrolysis at 65°C produced a lower inhibition percentage. Prolonging the incubation time from 120 to 240 minutes significantly (p<0.05) increased the inhibition percentage. The inhibition percentage of hydrolysates was significantly (p<0.05) increased when pH increased from 9.0 to 9.5. However, increasing pH to 10.0 resulted in a reduction in inhibition percentage. Subsequently, the MPH with optimum condition (2.05% w/v, 55°C, 240 min and pH 9.5) was lyophilised and analysed for antimicrobial activities. The MIC and MBC values for MPH were 500 μg/mL and 1000 μg/mL against P. ananatis and 250 μg/mL and 1000 μg/mL against P. stewartii. The zones of inhibition value for MPH were 20.76 mm (1000 μg/mL) and 11.53 mm (500 μg/mL) for P. ananatis and 21.1 mm (1000 μg/mL), 14.03 mm (500 μg/mL) and 8.16 mm (250 μg/mL) for P. stewartii. At MIC, 2 MIC, and 4 MIC, the MPH exhibited a longer lag phase. Nonetheless, at a lower MIC concentration, a progressive rise in bacterial growth for P. ananatis and P. stewartii at 12 hours was observed. This study shows that enzymatic hydrolysis using alcalase can produce potential antimicrobial agent applicable to the agricultural sector.
Wan Xin Goh, Jun Wei Chiang, Nyet Kui Wong, Soi Moi Chye
Moringa oleifera SEED EXTRACT INHIBITS OXIDATIVE STRESS AND CYTOTOXICITY VIA INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC PATHWAYS IN HIGH GLUCOSE-INDUCED RINM5F β-CELLS
Hyperglycemia is one of the hallmarks of diabetes mellitus and is known to cause apoptosis in pancreatic islets. A reduction in pancreatic β-cell number and function results in impaired insulin production and diabetes. Moringa oleifera has substantial evidence of anti-diabetic and anti-hyperglycemic activity. However, there is a lack of study on the anti-cytotoxicity mechanism of Moringa oleifera seed extract in high glucose-induced RINm5F β-cells. In this study, we investigate the effect of Moringa oleifera seed extract on cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and caspases pathway in high glucose-induced RINm5F β-cells. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay results showed that Moringa oleifera seed extract inhibits high glucose-induced cytotoxicity in RINm5F β-cells. Dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay demonstrated that Moringa oleifera seed extract inhibits oxidative stress in high glucose-induced RINm5F β-cells. Moreover, Moringa oleifera seed extract inhibits high glucose-induced cytotoxicity via intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in RINm5F β-cells.