SPECIAL ISSUE (2022) 2
5th International Plant Breeding Conference 2022
1. Dr. Syarifah Aisyafaznim Sayed Abdul Rahman, Universiti Malaya
2. Prof. Madya Dr. Azwan Awang, Universiti Malaysia Sabah
3. Dr. Rohayu Ma'arup, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page 1- 8
Nur Fatihah Norman and Rohayu Ma`Arup
THE EFFECT OF SHORT-DAY AND LONG-DAY PHOTOPERIOD ON MORPHOLOGY, YIELD AND QUALITY OF SWEET POTATO (Ipomea batatas (L.) LAM)
Lighting strategies such as photoperiod have shown different morphological and physiological characteristics in most vegetables. In this study, three varieties (White, Purple and Orange) sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam) plants were grown with short-day photoperiod (8 hours) provided by white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and natural light (long-day photoperiod; 12 hours). The results showed there was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the height of White sweet potato between the two photoperiods. The long-day photoperiod increased the growth of aerial parts of sweet potatoes in three varieties and showed significant difference (p<0.05) for height of plants in white sweet potato and number of leaves in Purple sweet potatoes. Although the mean of rootstock produced and weight of rootstock in short-day photoperiod was higher than in long-day photoperiod, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the mean weight of rootstock and rootstock produced between short and long-day photoperiod. The mean of texture showed significant difference (p<0.05) in short-day photoperiod between three different varieties but not significant (p>0.05) in long-day photoperiod between two different varieties (Purple and Orange sweet potato; data not shown). The different short and long-day photoperiods did not change and improve the total soluble solid (TSS) in all varieties of sweet potato (data not shown). The texture or dry matter content is important in consumed food such as sweet potato, which is also a crucial parameter that is directly linked to the quality of the product. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of texture and TSS for rootstock between two different photoperiods. In summary, the long-day photoperiod is the best treatment used to improve the aerial parts growth of sweet potatoes and short-day photoperiod is the best treatment used to improve rootstock's yield of sweet potatoes.
Salleh M.S., Nordin M.S., Rafii M.Y., Noraziyah A.A.S. and Mohamad-Bahagia A.G.
GENOTYPIC-PHENOTYPIC RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GRAIN YIELD, LEAF BIOCHEMICALS AND ANTHESIS QUALITY TRAITS IN RICE UNDER REPRODUCTIVE STAGE DROUGHT
Reproductive stage drought (RSD) significantly reduces the harvestable grain yield of rice. The grain yield (GY) is commonly used as a direct selection criterion in breeding drought-tolerant rice, while the leaf relative water content (LRWC) as a secondary selection criterion. The aim of this study was to compare the degree of association between leaf biochemicals (LB) and anthesis quality traits (AQT) with the harvestable GY under RSD. The pot-trial experiment was conducted using randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. A total of 18 rice genotypes consisting of selected cultivars, breeding lines and landraces were used in this study. Quantitative assessment of LB and AQT was conducted under RSD at -60 kPa. The GY was recorded at harvest maturity. Genotypic correlation analysis was conducted to determine the general association of the studied traits while the path coefficient analysis was to determine the direct and indirect effects of LRWC and AQT (independent variables) on the GY (dependent variable). The level of lipid peroxidation and proline content were not significantly correlated with AQT, LRWC, and GY. In contrast, spikelet moisture content (SMC) was positively and significantly correlated with all of the AQT particularly spikelet opening (SO), anther exertions (AE), apical dehiscence length (ADL), apical dehiscence width (ADW), basal dehiscence length (BDL), basal dehiscence width (BDW), number of pollen grains (NPG) and pollen load on stigma (PLS) at 0.624, 0.746, 0.786, 0.799, 0.735, 0.789, 0.724, and 0.701 except for the rate of pollen viability (RPV) at 0.506. The SMC was also positively and significantly correlated with the LRWC (0.949) and GY (0.836). Results of the path-coefficient analysis revealed that the direct and indirect effects of the SMC towards GY were higher than the LRWC and other AQT. This indicated that the SMC was highly associated and contributed to higher GY under RSD. The LRWC, in contrast, recorded a negative direct effect with GY (-0.912) under RSD. These results suggested that SMC might be used as a better secondary selection criterion in breeding drought-tolerant rice compared to LRWC. However, further field trials are necessary to confirm finding of the present study.
Wan Nur Suzani Sazleen Wan Shafiin, Nurfatin Liyana Ablah, Rohayu Ma’arup, Izlamira Roslan, Md. Amirul Alam, Nadiawati Alias, Azman Azid and Hasan Nudin Nur Fatihah
MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PARENTAL LINES AND RECIPROCAL HYBRIDS OF CUCUMBER (Cucumis sativus L.)
Growing awareness of the economic and health benefits of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) as a nutritional crop has renewed interest in the production and development of improved cultivars. Breeding of local cucumber cultivars especially in Malaysia, under tropical conditions is scarce. UniSZA has initiated research in cucumber breeding with the objective to develop improved variety for local cultivation. This study investigated morphological variation in six cucumber parental lines; DINO 03-0143, TRG 13-0054, KTN 15-0040, TRG 19-0001, TRG 18-0018, and TRG 19-0002 and their reciprocal hybrids. Morphological characteristics were evaluated at three plant stages; vegetative, inflorescence, and fruit. From the result obtained, most hybrids showed improvement in morphological qualities including fruit weight, fruit length, main vine length and side shoot number as compared to their respective parents. A cross between TRG 19-0002 x TRG 13-0054 produced hybrids with the longest (16.6 cm) and heaviest fruit (215 g) as compared to the other hybrids. For main vine length, TRG 19-0001 x TRG 18-0018 produced hybrids with the longest vine length (167 cm), which was superior to enhance vegetative growth in cucumber breeding. Moreover, most hybrids formed female flowers faster than their parents, thus producing early fruits which shorten the harvesting time. Therefore, the hybrids produced can be expanded to a larger scale field trial for the commercial cucumber market.
Sakthivel Poraya Goundar, Sandhya Ramani, Khamsah Suryati Mohd, Chua Kim Aik, Hasan Nudin Nur Fatihah
EVALUATION OF NEW CUCUMBER (Cucumis sativus L.) HYBRIDS FOR AGRONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS AND BEGOMOVIRUS RESISTANCE
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is an important vegetable crop in the world and the third largest vegetable crop in Malaysia in terms of planting area. Available hybrids in the market reached a yield plateau due to insufficient exploitation of hybrid vigour and susceptibility to Begomoviruses. The present study aimed to evaluate 20 cucumber F1 hybrids from Green World Genetics (GWG) in an open field for yield, fruit quality parameters, and Begomovirus resistance. Six leading commercial F1 hybrids from South East Asian countries were included as checks. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with two replications and eight plants/replication. Marketable fruit yield (kg/plant) was calculated and subjected to statistical analysis. Among the top seven high-yielding hybrids, GWG18 has white fruit, and the remaining are bicolour. A wide range of data was recorded for yield per plant (2.51-3.46 kg/plant), number of fruits per plant (4.92-9.42), fruit length (21-30.25 cm), and fruit weight (305-428 g) in these seven hybrids. The C5, which produced 1.47 kg/plant, had the highest commercial check F1 hybrids yield. Begomovirus resistance was measured using disease severity scale (0-5) and the presence of Begomovirus in the symptomatic samples was confirmed by PCR amplification using universal primer pair M9A-F973 and M9A-R1516. All these seven hybrids expressed a high level of resistance to Begomoviruses at field level, whereas checks were grouped into either susceptible or medium resistance. Hence, these hybrids can be advanced for large-scale demo and commercial cultivation in all open-field tropical cucumber markets.
Siti Nabila Rahmat, German Mingramm, Chua Kim Aik, Nadiawati Alias, Hasan Nudin Nur Fatihah
EVALUATION OF AGRO-MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS BETWEEN WAXY CORN (Zea mays var. ceratina) INBRED LINES
Waxy corn (Zea mays var. ceratina) is characterized by its sticky texture when cooked as a result of having a higher amount of amylopectin, and the kernel colors range from white, yellow, red, purple, and blue. In Malaysia, cultivation of waxy corn is scarce, hence fewer breeding activities were done on waxy corn. The potential yield of waxy corn remains low compared to other corn varieties. This study aimed to identify and select potential inbred lines with the best agro-morphological performance for waxy corn breeding programs. A total of 16 inbred lines (12 waxy corns and four grain corns) from Green World Genetics (GWG) were planted in an open field using a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 25 plants per inbred line. The agro-morphological traits were evaluated at pre-harvest stage (45 to 60 days after sowing) and post-harvest stage (95 to 110 days after sowing). Among the inbred lines, three waxy corns (BL 1-7, BL 1-8, and BL 1-11) and all four grain corns (GWT 46-1-Bulk, GWT 46-10-Bulk, GWT 10 -51, and GWT BL 1-10-17) showed the best agro-morphological performance, hence selected for further diallel crosses. These inbred lines outperformed the others in terms of kernel weight, ear weight with husk and without husk, and earliness in tasselling and silking emergence. The results of this study provide corn breeders and growers with new opportunities to promote the production of waxy corn with improved agro-morphological characteristics and yield.
Mohd Fahmi Abu Bakar and Ahmad Sofiman Othman
EVALUATION OF TRANSCRIPTOME IN Hevea brasiliensis AND DISCOVERY OF SNP AND SSR FROM CANDIDATE GENES RELATED TO CELLULOSE AND LIGNIN BIOSYNTHESIS
Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is a well-known species with high economic value from natural rubber and rubberwood production. Increasing demand for furniture and related industries has made rubberwood production as important as latex production. Using molecular markers for rubber breeding program could help to breed new rubber clone with high amount of rubberwood. In this study we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) on four H. brasiliensis clones (RRIM 712, RRIM 2025, RRIM 3001 and PB 314) from bark, latex, and leaf tissues to identify simple sequence repeats (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated with wood-formation related genes (genes associated with the biosynthesis of wood). A total of 1,697,491,922 raw reads were generated and assembled to generate 101,269 transcripts. The annotation analysis showed that seven candidate genes involved in lignin biosynthesis while four candidate genes involved in cellulose biosynthesis. There are a total of 1,786 SNPs and 31 SSRs were found related to wood-formation biosynthesis of H. brasiliensis from 11 lignin and cellulose gene toolboxes. The primer validation process showed that a total of 103 SNPs and 18 SSR markers were successfully amplified and could be useful as a molecular tool for marker-assisted breeding to produce new timber rubber clones.
Ummu Hani Badron, Madihah Muhammad Nawi, Tan Ai Lee, Nur Munirah Sabki and Darishini Sagadevan
MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDIES OF Phyllanthus emblica L. AND Phyllanthus pectinatus Hook.f. (PHYLLANTHACEAE) IN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA
Phyllanthus emblica and Phyllanthus pectinatus are both locally known as Malaca trees and have been used indiscriminately in Peninsular Malaysia to treat various ailments. Morphologically, they are very similar in juvenile and sterile form. In addition, the information on the anatomy of both species is still meagre. Thus, the present study aimed to determine the diagnostic morphological and anatomical characteristics to distinguish both Phyllanthus species. The methods used include field observation, fresh sample collections, herbarium specimen preparation, leaves sectioning using a sliding microtome, permanent slide preparation and observation under a light microscope. From the observation conducted, it was noted that the fruits of P. emblica were often found clustered at the leaf base, whereas, in P. pectinatus they were located at the end of the shoots only. The fruit endocarp of P. emblica was rounded, but sharply 3-angled in P. pectinatus. The mature tree bark of P. emblica was dippled but scrolled in P. pectinatus and the young shoots were usually yellowish green in P. emblica while often pink to red in P. pectinatus. Results from the anatomical examination showed significant difference where the adaxial midrib outline of P. emblica was nearly straight while concave in P. pectinatus; the spongy mesophyll consisted of 5–6 cell layers with small intercellular spaces in P. emblica and 7 cell layers with large intercellular spaces in P. pectinatus. The presence of a thick epicuticle layer was observed in P. pectinatus and thin in P. emblica. The occurrence of papillae at the abaxial epidermis cells was only noted in P. pectinatus. The presence of trichomes and calcium oxalate crystals was abundant in P. emblica while rare in P. pectinatus. In conclusion, a combination of these anatomical characteristics could be used as an alternative to distinguish both Phyllanthus species in juvenile and sterile forms to avoid misidentification before samples are utilized for further research or plant breeding and cultivation.
Khairun Hisam Nasir, Siti Nadrah Abd Hisham, Siti Norsaidah Ibrahim, Hasnizah Mohd Yusof and Mohd Nazrie Kamaludin
DEVELOPMENT OF SIMPLE SEQUENCE REPEAT MARKERS IN SOURSOP (Annona muricata)
Soursop (Annona muricata L.) is a species of the genus Annona belonging to the family Annonaceae. A total of 84,250,670 clean reads were used to de novo assembly to generate 3,203,843 transcripts and 163,556 unigenes. Out of that, 7,569 soursop simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were mined from the soursop transcriptome. Mononucleotide was the most abundant, followed by dinucleotide, trinucleotide and tetranucleotide repeats, respectively. Eighty-three SSRs were PCR optimized and used for genotyping to soursop accessions collected at multi locations in Malaysia peninsular. The Unweighted Pair-Group Method for Arithmetic means (UPGMA) had clustered soursop accessions into 2 groups. This information will be used for DNA fingerprinting of potential commercial soursop varieties.
Shakinah Salleh, Zaiton Ahmad, Mustapha Akil, Mohamad Syahmim Mohamad Din, Affrida Abu Hassan and Mohamed Hasyraf Mat Nawi
EFFECT OF ACUTE GAMMA RADIATION ON THE GERMINATION AND EARLY GROWTH OF SORGHUM ‘BTS-1’
Sorghum is a flowering plant in the grass family. Sorghum ‘BTS-1’ is grown as a forage crop for animal consumption. The seeds used in this study were supplied by a private grower. The objective of this project was to improve sorghum varieties with enhanced adaptability to Malaysian conditions, high yield (seed and biomass), higher protein content as well as tolerance to diseases and pests. Radiosensitivity test was carried out to determine the 50 % lethal dose (LD50) and the effect of acute gamma rays on germination percentage and plant height of seedlings derived from irradiated sorghum seeds. For this purpose, acute gamma irradiation was used to irradiate sorghum ‘BTS-1’ at dose 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000, 1200, 1400, 1600, 1800 and 2000 Gy. The irradiated seeds including the control / non-irradiated were germinated in a laboratory at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency using completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. The graph on percentage of germination was plotted and the LD50 value was calculated based on the equation of Sinusoidal Fit: y=a+b*cos(cx+d). The LD50 for sorghum ‘BTS-1’ was 889.02 Gy. The germination percentage and plant height were decreased with increasing dose of acute gamma radiation. In general, higher doses of acute gamma irradiation particularly above 700 Gy showed a negative effect on morphological characteristics such as plant height, the number and size of leaf, and chlorophyll content. This data is important for future Sorghum improvement program.
Yusuf Opeyemi Oyebamiji, Amira Ismail, Asmuni Mohd Ikmal, Noraziyah Abd Aziz Shamsudin
SCREENING OF RICE BREEDING LINES UNDER REPRODUCTIVE STAGE DROUGHT STRESS
Drought is one of the major limiting factors hampering rice production globally. With respect to this, breeding for tolerant rice cultivars to alleviate drought is considered imperative for sustainable rice production worldwide. Our previous study successfully developed a 4-way F3 population by crossing UKM-5/IR64-Sub1 BC1F2 selected individuals (with drought yield QTLs - qDTY12.1 and qDTY3.1 + submergence tolerant QTL - Sub1), and UKMRC2/Tetep BC1F5 selected individuals (with sheath blight-resistant QTL - qSBR11-1TT). Therefore, the aim of this study was to understand the morpho-agronomical traits responses of 28 4-way F3 breeding lines (BLs) and check genotypes under reproductive stage drought stress (RS). Ten two-week-old seedlings per line were transplanted into a single-row plot using the spacing of 25 cm between and within rows. Forty-five days after transplanting, the RS was induced and sustained until harvest. Traits including days to flowering (DTF), plant height (PH), chlorophyll content (CC), leaf rolling (LR), number of tiller per plant (NT), number of panicle per plant (NP), number of spikelet per panicle (NSP), number of sterile spikelet per panicle (SS), hundred grain weight (GW), grain length (GL) and grain yield per plant (GY) were recorded and analyzed using Minitab version 20.2.0. In this study, RS level was considered mild due to a few rain episodes during the screening period. Mean values of all traits in BLs were higher than checks except for SS, GW and GL under RS. Interestingly, 71% (20) families produced higher GY compared to check genotypes. Furthermore, all traits were positively correlated with the GY except for LR. This study signifies that the combination of qDTYs with Sub1 significantly enhanced the morpho-agronomical traits and GY in the 4-way F3 BLs under RS. Therefore, selected individuals with high-yielding and drought-tolerant prospects can be advanced and evaluated for future breeding programs.
Irfa’ Yudayantho, Dwi Mai Abdul Imam Buqori, Sholeh Avivi, Sri Hartaik
MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS STABILITY OF SUGARCANE MUTANT IN MULTI-LOCATION TRIALS
Three genotypes of sugarcane mutated from the Bululawang variety using the EMS mutagen were used as planting materials in this study. These planting materials were genotypes that were selected in fourth generations with an average sugarcane rendement of 11-16%. Multiple locations based on the difference in elevation of the location were used in this study, namely Sukorambi District Jember (±62 masl), Arjasa District Jember (±141 masl) and Kraton District Pasuruan (±3 masl). Data analysis was done using plant breeding tools by IRRI. This study aims to determine the morphological stability of sugarcane mutants at three locations based on the location's altitude during one growing season. Based on the research data, the environmental effects of the three locations did not significantly affect the morphological parameters of internode length, leaf width, leaf length and plant height. On the other hand, environmental factors from the three locations have an impact on morphological parameters such as stem diameter, total of internodes and leaf area index. Multi-location experimental studies on the morphological stability of sugarcane mutants can be used to determine the interaction between environmental and genetic effects on the development of sugarcane mutants. If the morphological characteristic is stable, then the genetic factors are more dominant than the environmental factors so that the sugarcane mutant is able to adapt widely.
Nor-Fadilah Wook, Mohd-Zaki Abdullah, Keeren Sundara-Rajoo, Farah Fazwa Md Ariff, Siti-Salwana Hashim, Muhammad-Asri Lias and Abdul Razak Sahril
A FOUR-YEAR FIELD STUDY ON THE TISSUE-CULTURED AND SEEDS PROPAGATED Endospermum diadenum (SESENDUK) TREES PLANTED AT JELI, KELANTAN, MALAYSIA
Endospermum diadenum is a medium to large, fast-growing and light-demanding species. Locally known as Sesenduk, its light wood is used to produce furniture and many daily-used items, making it a lucrative timber source. This study aimed to determine the potential for E. diadenum to be a forest plantation species by evaluating the growth performance of seeds and tissue-cultured clones in a four-year field trial planted at Jeli, Kelantan. In this study, 200 tissue-cultured plantlets and 200 seedlings of five different progenies (UT4, UT9, UT12, UT25 and UT31) were planted at a distance of 4 m x 3 m, covering an area of 0.48 hectares. Plant height (HT) and survival percentage were recorded at seven different growth periods, whereas the diameter at breast height (DBH) was recorded at four different growth periods. Generally, the survivability of the tissue-cultured propagated trees was better as compared to seeds. However, E. diadenum trees propagated via seeds had better growth performance in terms of HT and DBH. Mean annual increment (MAI) of HT and DBH for both tissue-cultured and seeds propagated E. diadenum trees were as follows; 2.07 myr-1 and 2.54 cmyr-1; 2.4 myr- and 2.9 cmyr-1, respectively. Evaluating the growth performance based on the genotype differences, the results indicated UT31 has the potential to be used for future forest plantation and E. diadenum tree improvement programmes. After four years of planting, the UT31 recorded the highest height (11.61 m), DBH (14.04 cm) and the best survival rate.